Natural Gas Hydrate

in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments

Michael D. Max (Redaktør)

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Natural Gas Hydrate

1. THE BEGINNINGS OF HYDRATE RESEARCH Until very recently, our understanding of hydrate in the natural environment and its impact on seafloor stability, its importance as a sequester of methane, and its potential as an important mechanism in the Earth's climate change system, was masked by our lack of appreciation of the vastness of the hydrate resource. Only a few publications on naturally occurring hydrate existed prior to 1975. The first published reference to oceanic gas hydrate (Bryan and Markl, 1966) and the first publication in the scientific literature (Stoll, et a1., 1971) show how recently it has been since the topic of naturally occurring hydrate has been raised. Recently, however, the number of hydrate publications has increased substantially, reflecting increased research into hydrate topics and the initiation of funding to support the researchers. Awareness of the existence of naturally occurring gas hydrate now has spread beyond the few scientific enthusiasts who pursued knowledge about the elusive hydrate because of simple interest and lurking suspicions that hydrate would prove to be an important topic. The first national conference on gas hydrate in the U.S. was held as recently as April, 1991 at the U. S. National Center of the U.s. Geological Survey in Reston Virginia (Max et al., 1991). The meeting was co-hosted by the U.s. Geological Survey, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the U.S.

Preface; M.D. Max. Part 1: Hydrate as a Material and its Discovery. 1. Introduction, Physical Properties, and Natural Occurrences of Hydrate; R.E. Pellenbarg, M.D. Max. 2. Natural Gas Hydrate: Introduction and History of Discovery; K.A. Kvenvolden. Part 2: Physical Character of Natural Gas Hydrate. 3. Practical Physical Chemistry and Empirical Predictions of Methane Hydrate Stability; E.T. Peltzer, P.G. Brewer. 4. Thermal State of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir; C. Ruppel. Part 3: Oceanic and Permafrost-Related Natural Gas Hydrate. 5. Permafrost-Associated Gas Hydrate; T.S. Collett, S.R. Dallimore. 6. Oceanic Gas Hydrate; W.P. Dillon, M.D. Max. Part 4: Source of Methane and its Migration. 7. The Role of Methane Hydrate in Ocean Carbon Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycling; R.B. Coffin, et al. 8. Deep Biosphere: Source of Methane for Oceanic Hydrate; P. Wellsbury, R.J. Parkes. 9. Movement and Accumulation of Methane in Marine Sediments: Relation to Gas Hydrate Systems; M.B. Clennell, et al. Part 5: Major Hydrate-related Issues. 10. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Potential Energy Resource; T.S. Collett. 11. Climate Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate; B.U. Haq. 12. Potential Role of Gas Hydrate Decomposition in Generating Submarine Slope Failures; C.K. Paull, et al. Part 6: Some Examples of Natural Gas Hydrate Localities. 13. U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin; the Best Known Gas Hydrate Locality; W.P. Dillon, M.D. Max. 14. Gas Hydrate in the Arctic and Northern North Atlantic Oceans; M.D. Max, et al. 15. Cascadia Margin, Northeast Pacific Ocean: Hydrate Distribution from Geophysical Investigations; G.D. Spence, et al. 16. The Occurrence of BSRs on the Antarctic Margin; E. Loddo, A. Camerlenghi. 17. Gas Hydrate Potential of the Indian Sector of the NE Arabian Sea and Northern Indian Ocean; M.D. Max. 18. Hydrate as a Future Energy Resource for Japan; M.D. Max. 19. A Note on Gas Hydrate in the Northern Sector of the South China Sea; S. McDonnel, M. Czarnecki. Part 7: How we see Hydrate. 20. Introduction to Physical Properties and Elasticity Models; J. Dvorkin, et al. 21. Geophysical Sensing and Hydrate; P.R. Miles. 22. Seismic Methods for Detecting and Quantifying Marine Methane Hydrate/Free Gas Reservoirs; I.A. Pecher, W.S. Holbrook. 23. Ground Truth: In-Situ Properties of Hydrate; D.S. Goldberg, et al. Part 8: Laboratory Studies of Gas Hydrates. 24. GHASTLI -- Determining Physical Properties of Sediment Containing Natural and Laboratory-Formed Gas Hydrate; W.J. Winters, et al. 25. Laboratory synthesis of pure methane hydrate su