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Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations

An Attempt at a Critical Rationalist Appraisal

Serie: Synthese Library 401

This book collects 13 papers that explore Wittgenstein's philosophy throughout the different stages of his career. The author writes from the viewpoint of critical rationalism. The tone of his analysis is friendly and appreciative yet critical. Les mer
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This book collects 13 papers that explore Wittgenstein's philosophy throughout the different stages of his career. The author writes from the viewpoint of critical rationalism. The tone of his analysis is friendly and appreciative yet critical.



Of these papers, seven are on the background to the philosophy of Wittgenstein. Five papers examine different aspects of it: one on the philosophy of young Wittgenstein, one on his transitional period, and the final three on the philosophy of mature Wittgenstein, chiefly his Philosophical Investigations. The last of these papers, which serves as the concluding chapter, concerns the analytical school of philosophy that grew chiefly under its influence.



Wittgenstein's posthumous Philosophical Investigations ignores formal languages while retaining the view of metaphysics as meaningless -- declaring that all languages are metaphysics-free. It was very popular in the middle of the twentieth century. Now it is passe. Wittgenstein had hoped to dissolve all philosophical disputes, yet he generated a new kind of dispute. His claim to have improved the philosophy of life is awkward just because he prevented philosophical discussion from the ability to achieve that: he cut the branch on which he was sitting. This, according to the author, is the most serious critique of Wittgenstein.

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Innholdsfortegnelse

PrefaceChapter 1. Background1.1. The Tragedy of Young Wittgenstein1.2. Metaphysics Needs No Defense1.3. The Analytic School and Politics1.4. Analysis; Paradoxes of Analysis1.5. Grammatical Errors
Chapter 2. A History of Anti-Metaphysics2.1. The Doctrine of Prejudice2.2. Radicalism2.3. The Poverty of the Analytic Scholarship2.4. The Rise of Current Anti-Metaphysics
Chapter 3. The waning of essentialism3.1. The Background to Anti-Metaphysics3.2. Anti-Essentialism3.3. Existential Import3.4. On Stilted Language3.5. Reinterpretation in Logic and in Science
Chapter 4. Logic and Mathematics4.1. Words, Statements and Inferences4.2. The Universe of Discourse4.3. The Place of Kant in the Story4.4. Logic, Mathematics and Meaning
Chapter 5. Logic and Language5.1. Proper Form versus Truth-value5.2. Laws of Thought versus Laws of language5.3. Between Logic and Psychology
Chapter 6. Frege6.1. Anti-Essentialism Again6.2. What is a Calculus?6.3. The Demise of Transcendental Logic
Chapter 7. Russell7.1. The Deduction Theorem7.2. On Denoting7.3. The Puzzle7.4. Russell and Young Wittgenstein
Chapter 8. Young Wittgenstein8.1. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus8.2 Russellian Background8.3. Logical Atomism8.4. The Significant Meaningless
Chapter 9. Interim period: Carnap versus Popper9.1. Background again9.2. The Interim Period9.3. Engelmann9.4. Ideal Language9.5. Wittgenstein and Carnap
Chapter 10. Ordinary Language Analysis10.1. Philosophical Investigations: Background10.2. Young and Mature Wittgenstein10.3. Signposts in Philosophical Investigations10.4. The Aftermath
Chapter 11. The Message of Philosophical Investigations11.1. Analysis versus Metaphysics11.2. Analysis sans Anti-metaphysics11.3. Anti-Essentialism again11.4. Wittgenstein's HeritageAppendix to Lecture 11
Chapter 12. Analysis of Analysis12.1. Analysis Defended12.2. The Limits of Language12.3. Wittgenstein's Analytic Approach
Chapter 13. Conclusion: The Place of Wittgenstein13.1. Things to Avoid13.2. Wittgenstein's Self-appraisal13.3. Wittgenstein as a Moralist13.4. The Task of Philosophers13.5. The Public Impact of Wittgenstein's Investigations13.6. Conclusion
ReferencesIndex of Names