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Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record - 
      Michael J. Benton
    
      David A. T. Harper

Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record

; David A. T. Harper

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the science of the history of life. Paleobiologists bring many analytical tools to bear in interpreting the fossil record and the book introduces the latest techniques, from multivariate investigations of biogeography and biostratigraphy to engineering analysis of dinosaur skulls, and from homeobox genes to cladistics. Les mer
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Paperback
Legg i
Vår pris: 701,-

(Paperback) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 7 virkedager

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the science of the history of life. Paleobiologists bring many analytical tools to bear in interpreting the fossil record and the book introduces the latest techniques, from multivariate investigations of biogeography and biostratigraphy to engineering analysis of dinosaur skulls, and from homeobox genes to cladistics.
All the well-known fossil groups are included, including microfossils and invertebrates, but an important feature is the thorough coverage of plants, vertebrates and trace fossils together with discussion of the origins of both life and the metazoans. All key related subjects are introduced, such as systematics, ecology, evolution and development, stratigraphy and their roles in understanding where life came from and how it evolved and diversified.
Unique features of the book are the numerous case studies from current research that lead students to the primary literature, analytical and mathematical explanations and tools, together with associated problem sets and practical schedules for instructors and students.
New to this edition



The text and figures have been updated throughout to reflect current opinion on all aspects

New case studies illustrate the chapters, drawn from a broad distribution internationally

Chapters on Macroevolution, Form and Function, Mass extinctions, Origin of Life, and Origin of Metazoans have been entirely rewritten to reflect substantial advances in these topics

There is a new focus on careers in paleobiology
FAKTA
Utgitt:
Forlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Innbinding: Paperback
Språk: Engelsk
ISBN: 9781119272854
Format: 28 x 22 cm
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Preface xi


Acknowledgments xiii


1 Paleontology as a science 1


Introduction 2


Paleontology in the modern world 2


Paleontology as a science 3


Steps to understanding 12


Fossils and evolution 16


Paleontology today 17


Review questions 23


Further reading 23


References 24


2 Stratigraphy 25


Introduction 26


How stratigraphy works 26


New techniques, new tools 40


Geological time scale: a common language 46


Extraterrestrial stratigraphy 47


Review questions 48


Further reading 48


References 49


3 Paleogeography and paleoclimates 50


Paleobiogeography 50


Fossils in mountain belts 64


Paleoclimates 69


The Anthropocene 76


Review questions 77


Further reading 77


References 77


4 Paleoecology 80


Introduction 81


Taphonomic constraints: sifting through the debris 83


Populations: can groups of individuals make a difference? 85


Habitats and niches 86


Paleocommunities 95


Evolutionary paleoecology 100


Ecological ranking of mass extinctions 110


Full contents vii


Review questions 112


Further reading 112


References 112


5 Taphonomy and the quality of the fossil record 115


Introduction 116


Fossil preservation 116


Quality of the fossil record 130


Review questions 137


Further reading 138


References 138


6 Fossil form and function 140


Introduction 141


Growth and form 141


Evolution and development 147


Interpreting the function of fossils 152


Review questions 163


Further reading 164


References 164


7 Macroevolution and the tree of life 165


Introduction 166


Evolution by natural selection 167


Evolution and the fossil record 170


Trends and radiations 179


The tree of life 184


Review questions 191


Further reading 191


References 191


8 Biodiversity, extinction, and mass extinction 193


Introduction 194


The diversification of life 195


Mass extinctions 202


The "big five" mass extinction events 207


Extinction then and now 215


Review questions 220


Further reading 220


References 221


9 The origin of life 223


Introduction 224


The origin of life 224


Evidence for the origin of life 228


Life diversifies: eukaryotes 236


Review questions 245


Further reading 246


References 246


10 Protists 248


Introduction 249


Protozoa 252


Mystery protists of the proterozoic and paleozoic 260


Phytoplankton 266


Review questions 277


Further reading 277


References 277


11 Origin and expansion of the metazoans 279


Origins and classification 280


Invertebrate body and skeletal plans 284


Five key faunas 289


Review questions 304


Further reading 304


References 304


12 The basal metazoans: sponges and corals 306


Introduction 307


Porifera 307


Cnidaria 322


Review questions 341


Further reading 342


References 342


13 Lophophorates 1: brachiopods and bryozoans 344


Introduction 345


Brachiopoda 345


Bryozoa 360


Review questions 369


Further reading 370


References 370


14 Lophotrochozoans 2: mollusks and annelids 372


Mollusks 372


Introduction 373


Early mollusks 375


Class Bivalvia 380


Class Gastropoda 384


Class Cephalopoda 390


Class Scaphopoda 403


Class Rostroconcha 403


Evolutionary trends within the Mollusca 404


Annelids 406


Review questions 410


Further reading 410


References 410


15 Ecdysozoa: arthropods 412


Introduction 413


Early arthropod faunas 413


Subphylum Trilobitomorpha (artiopoda) 416


Subphylum Chelicerata 428


Subphylum Myriapoda 430


Subphylum Hexapoda 430


Subphylum Crustacea 433


Exceptional arthropod faunas through time 438


Review questions 442


Further reading 442


References 443


16 Deuterostomes: echinoderms and hemichordates 445


Introduction 446


Echinoderms 446


Hemichordates 468


Review questions 484


Further reading 484


References 484


17 Fishes and basal tetrapods 486


Introduction 487


Origin of the vertebrates 487


Jaws and fish evolution 492


Tetrapods 498


Reign of the reptiles 503


Review questions 510


Further reading 510


References 511


18 Dinosaurs and mammals 512


Introduction 513


Dinosaurs and their kin 513


Bird evolution 521


Rise of the mammals 522


The line to humans 530


Review questions 536


Further reading 536


References 537


19 Fossil plants and fungi 538


Introduction 539


Terrestrialization of plants 539


The great coal forests 547


Seed-bearing plants 552


Flowering plants 562


Review questions 568


Further reading 568


References 568


20 Trace fossils 570


Introduction 571


Understanding trace fossils 571


Trace fossils in sediments 578


Review questions 592


Further reading 592


References 592


Finale 594


Glossary 598


Appendix 1: Stratigraphic chart 617


Appendix 2: Paleogeographic maps 619


Index 620
Michael J. Benton is Professor of Vertebrate Palaeontology at the University of Bristol. He is interested particularly in early reptiles, Triassic dinosaurs and macroevolution, and has published 50 books and over 400 scientific articles. He founded the Masters in Paleobiology degree at Bristol, which has now graduated over 400 students.
David A.T. Harper is a leading expert on fossil brachiopods, numerical methods in paleontology and Phanerozoic stratigraphy. He is Professor of Paleontology, and Principal of Van Mildert College in Durham University. He has published over 15 books and monographs, including a couple of influential textbooks, as well as over 300 scientific articles and, together with Oyvind Hammer, the widely-used software package PAST.