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# Principles of Physics

## For Scientists and Engineers

This textbook presents a basic undergraduate course in physics covering all essential aspects of mechanics, mechanical properties of matter, thermal properties of matter, elementary thermodynamics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, light, optics and sound. Les mer
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This textbook presents a basic undergraduate course in physics covering all essential aspects of mechanics, mechanical properties of matter, thermal properties of matter, elementary thermodynamics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, light, optics and sound. It includes simple mathematical approaches to each physical principle, with carefully selected examples and exercises supporting each chapter.

This second edition of a widely popular textbook - boasting close to 6 million downloads - adds many new exercises and solutions, a new summary for each chapter, boxed features separating the examples from the text, and highlights fundamental physical outcomes and rules. The appendices provide a quick and helpful point of reference for all fundamental conversion factors and basic formulas, as well as rules for differentiation and integration, helping students to understand the elementary mathematical steps used for solving the examples and exercises. Visually impressive and full of real-word examples with step-by-step solutions, this textbook is an indispensable tool for both instructors and students seeking direct access to a broad spectrum of physics.

PART 1: FUNDAMENTAL BASICS

CHAPTER 1: DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

1-1 The International System of Units

1-2 Standards of Length, Time, and Mass

1-3 Dimensional analysis

1-4 Significant Figures

1-5 Estimation and Order of Magnitude

Summary

1-6 Exercises

CHAPTER 2: VECTORS

2-1 Vectors and Scalars

2-2 Properties of Vectors

2-3 Vector Components and Unit Vectors

2-4 Multiplying Vectors

Summary

2-5 Exercises

PART 2: MECHANICS

CHAPTER 3: MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION

3-1 Position and Displacement

3-2 Average Velocity and Average Speed

3-3 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

3-4 Acceleration

3-5 Constant Acceleration

3-6 Free Fall

Summary

3-7 Exercises

CHAPTER 4: MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS

4-1 Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors

4-2 Projectile Motion

4-3 Uniform Circular Motion

4-5 Non-uniform Circular Motion

Summary

4-6 Exercises

CHAPTER 5: FORCE AND MOTION

5-1 The Cause of Acceleration and Newton's Laws

5-2 Some Particular Forces

5-3 Applications to Newton's Laws

Summary

5-4 Exercises

CHAPTER 6: WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER

6-1 Work Done by a Constant Force

6-2 Work Done by a Variable Force

6-3 Work-Energy Theorem

6-4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

6-5 Conservation of Mechanical Energy

6-6 Work Done by Non-conservative forces

6-7 Conservation of Energy

6-8 Power

Summary

6-9 Exercises

CHAPTER 7: LINEAR MOMENTUM, COLLISION, AND CENTER OF MASS

7-1 Linear Momentum and Impulse

7-2 Conservation of Linear Momentum

7-3 Conservation of Momentum and Energy in Collisions

7-3-1 Elastic Collisions in One and Two Dimensions

7-3-2 Inelastic Collisions, Center of Mass (CM)

7-5 Dynamics of the Center of Mass

7-6 Systems of Variable Mass

7-6-1 Systems of Increasing Mass

7-6-2 Systems of Decreasing Mass; Rocket Propulsion

Summary

7-7 Exercises 200

CHAPTER 8: ROTATIONAL MOTION

8-2 Rotational Kinematics; Angular Quantities

8-3 Constant Angular Acceleration

8-4 Angular Vectors

8-5 Relating Angular and Linear Quantities

8-6 Rotational Dynamics; Torque

8-7 Newton's Second Law for Rotation

8-8 Kinetic Energy, Work, and Power in Rotation

8-9 Rolling Motion

Summary

8-10 Exercises

CHAPTER 9: ANGULAR MOMENTUM

9-1 Angular Momentum of Rotating Systems

9-1-1 Angular Momentum of a Particles

9-1-2 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles

9-1-3 Angular Momentum of a Rotating Rigid Body

9-2 Conservation of Angular Momentum

9-3 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope

Summary

9-4 Exercises

CHAPTER 10: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

10-1 Density and Relative Density

10-2 Elastic Properties of Solids

10-2-1 Young's Modulus: Elasticity in Length

10-2-2 Shear Modulus: Elasticity of Shape

10-2-3 Bulk Modulus: Volume Elasticity

10-3 Fluids

10-4 Fluid Statics

10-5 Fluid Dynamics

Summary

10-6 Exercises

PART 3: INTODUCTORY THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER 11: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

11-1 Temperature

11-2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

11-2-1 Linear Expansion

11-2-2 Volume Expansion

11-3 The Ideal Gas

Summary

11-4 Exercises

CHAPTER 12: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

12-1 Heat and Thermal Energy

12-1-1 Units of Heat-The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

12-1-2 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

12-1-3 Latent Heat

12-2 Heat and Work

12-3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

12-4 Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics

12-5 Heat Transfer

Summary

12-6 Exercises

CHAPTER 13: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

13-1 Microscopic Model of an Ideal Gas

13-2 Molar Specific Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas

13-2-1 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Volume

13-2-2 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure

13-3 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

13-4 Non-ideal Gasses and Phases of Matter

Summary

13-3 Exercises

PART 4: SOUND AND LIGHT WAVES

CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVE MOTION

14-1 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

14-1-1 Velocity and Acceleration of SHM

14-1-2 The Force Law for SHM

14-1-3 Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

14-2 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion

14-3 Sinusoidal Waves

14-3-1 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

14-3-2 Wave length and Frequency

14-3-3 Harmonic Waves: Simple Harmonic Motion

14-4 The Speed of Waves on Strings

14-5 Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings

14-6 The Linear Wave Equation

14-7 Standing Waves

14-7-1 Reflection at a Boundary

14-7-2 Standing Waves and Resonance

Summary

14-8 Exercises

CHAPTER 15: SOUND WAVES

15-1 Speed of Sound Waves

15-2 Periodic Sound Waves

15-3 Energy, Power, and Intensity of Sound Waves

15-4 The Decibel Scale

15-5 Hearing Response to Intensity and Frequency

15-6 The Doppler Effect

15-7 Supersonic Speeds and Shock Waves

Summary

15-8 Exercises

CHAPTER 16: SUPERPOSITION OF SOUND WAVES

16-1 Superposition and Interference

16-2 Spatial Interference of Sound Waves

16-3 Standing Sound Waves

16-4 Standing Sound Waves in Air columns

16-5 Temporal Interference of Sound Waves: Beats

Summary

16-6 Exercises

CHAPTER 17: LIGHT WAVES AND OPTICS

17-1 Light Rays

17-2 Reflection and Refraction of Light

17-3 Total Internal Reflection and Optical Fibers

17-4 Chromatic Dispersion and Prisms

17-5 Formation of Images by Reflection

17-5-1 Plane Mirrors

17-5-2 Spherical Mirrors

17-5-2-1 Concave Mirrors

17-5-2-2 Convex Mirrors

17-6 Formation of Images by Refraction

17-6-1 Spherical Refracting Surfaces

17-6-2 Flat Refracting Surfaces

17-6-3 Thin Lenses

Summary

17-7 Exercises

CHAPTER 18: INTERFERENCE, DIFFRACTION, AND POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

18-1 Interference of Light Waves

18-2 Young's Double-Slit Experiment

18-3 Thin Films - Change of Phase due to Reflection

18-4 Diffraction of Light Waves

18-5 Diffraction Gratings

18-6 Polarization of Light Waves

Summary

18-7 Exercises

PART 5: ELECTRICITY

CHAPTER 19: ELECTRIC FORCE

19-1 Electric Charge

19-2 Charging Conductors and Insulators

19-3 Coulomb's Law

Summary

19-4 Exercises

CHAPTER 20: ELECTRIC FIELDS

20-1 The Electric Field

20-2 The Electric Field of a point charge

20-3 The Electric Field of an Electric Dipole

20-4 Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution

20-4-1 The Electric Field due to a Charged Rod

20-4-2 The Electric Field of a Uniformly Charged Arc

20-4-3 The Electric Field of a Uniformly Charged Ring

20-4-4 The Electric Field of a Uniformly Charged Disk

20-5 Electric Field Lines

20-6 Motion of Charged particles in a Uniform Electric Field

Summary

20-7 Exercises

CHAPTER 21: GAUSS'S LAW

21-1 Electric Flux

21-2 Gauss's Law

21-3 Applications of Gauss's Law

21-4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

21-5 Exercises

CHAPTER 22: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

22-1 Electric Potential Energy

22-2 Electric Potential

22-3 Electric Potential in a uniform Electric Field

22-4 Electric Potential Due to a Point Charge

22-5 Electric Potential Due to a Dipole

22-6 Electric Dipole in an External Electric Field

22-7 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Rod

22-8 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Arc

22-9 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Ring

22-10 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Disk

22-11 Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Sphere

22-12 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor

22-14 The Electrostatic Precipitator

22-15 The Van De Graaff Generator

Summary

22-16 Exercises

CHAPTER 23: CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE

23-1 Capacitor and Capacitance

23-2 Calculating Capacitance

23-3 Capacitors with Dielectrics

23-4 Capacitors in Parallel and Series

23-5 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor

Summary

23-6 Exercises

CHAPTER 24: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

24-1 Electric Current and Electric Current Density

24-2 Ohm's Law and Electric Resistance

24-3 Electric Power

24-4 Electromotive Force

24-5 Resistors in Series and Parallel

24-6 Kirchhoff's Rules

24-7 The RC Circuit

Summary

24-8 Exercises

PART 6: MAGNETISM

CHAPTER 25: MAGNETIC FIELDS

25-1 Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge

25-2 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field

25-3 Charged Particles in an Electric and Magnetic Fields

25-3-1 Velocity Selector

25-3-2 The Mass Spectrometer

25-3-3 The Hall Effect

25-4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

25-5 Torque on a Current Loop

25-5-1 Electric Motors

25-5-2 Galvanometers

25-6 Non-uniform Magnetic Fields

Summary

25-7 Exercises

CHAPTER 26: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD

26-1 The Biot-Savart Law

26-2 The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Currents

26-3 Ampere's Law

26-4 Displacement Current and the Ampere-Maxwell Law

26-5 Gauss's Law for Magnetism

26-6 The Origin of Magnetism

26-7 Magnetic Materials

26-8 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism

26-9 Ferromagnetism

26-10 Some Applications of Magnetism

Summary

26-11 Exercises

CHAPTER 27: FARADAY'S LAW, ALTERNATING CURRENT, AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS

27-2 Motional emf

27-3 Electric Generators

27-4 Alternating Current

27-5 Transformers

27-6 Induced Electric Fields

27-7 Maxwell's Equations of Electromagnetism

27-8 Exercises

CHAPTER 28: INDUCTANCE, OSCILLATING CIRCUITS, AND AC CIRCUITS

28-1 Self-Inductance

28-2 Mutual Inductance

28-3 Energy Stored in an Inductor

28-4 The L-R Circuit

28-5 The Oscillating L-C Circuit

28-6 The L-R-C Circui

28-7 Circuits with an ac Source

28-8 L-R-C Series in an ac Circuit

28-9 Resonance in L-R-C Series Circuits

Summary

28-10 Exercises

CHAPTER 29: Universal Gravitation

27-1 Universal Newtonian Law

27-2 Measuring the Gravitational Constant

27-3 Gravitational Force and the Free-Fall Acceleration

27-4 Kepler's Laws and the Motion of Planets

27-5 The Gravitational Field and the Gravitational Potential Energy

27-6 Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite Motion

Summary

27-7 Exercises

APPENDICES

A Conversion Factors

B Basic Rules and Formulas

C The Periodic Table of Elements

INDEX

Prof. Hafez A. Radi obtained his B.Sc. degree in Special Physics with distinction and highest class honors from Ain-Shams University in June 1967. He also obtained M. Sc. degree in theoretical atomic Physics from the same university in 1970. Then he moved to Kuwait University as a demonstrator and got his Ph. D. degree in theoretical Atomic Physics from the same University in 1974. He was promoted to Associate Professor Rank in 1979 and full Professor Rank in 1984. He visited the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (from June to August, 1975). For the last 44 years he has been working with research scientists in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. On leave of absence from Department of Physics, Kuwait University, he spent his Sabbatical leave (from January 1981 to January 1982) and visited the Lab 15 times (each for a period of about two month). As a visiting professor, he also spent two research months (starting from June 1979) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916, USA. After the Gulf war in 1990, he moved to King Abdul Aziz University (KAAU), Madinah Branch, SA (1990 - 2004) and Taibah University. He has been the Chairman of Physics and Mathematics Department at KAAU for one year. He moved to MSA University in Egypt in 2005 and appointed as the head of physics department from 2007 to 2012 and then as the head of the General Systems Engineering Department from 2012 to present. He published many articles as a leading author in distinguished international Journals such as Physical Review Letters, Physical Review A, Physical Review C, Journal of Physics (Atoms and Molecules), etc. He taught many undergraduate and Graduate courses in Physics, Mathematical Physics, and applications of Physics. He attended many international Conferences in Atomic and Nuclear Physics.

Prof. em. John O. Rasmussen, born 1926; B.S. California Institute of Technology (1948); Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley (1952); M.A. (hon) Yale (1969); Visiting Research Professor, Nobel Institute for Physics, Stockholm (1953); N.S.F. Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (1961-62); E.O. Lawrence Award (1967); Professor and Associate Director, Heavy Ion Accelerator Laboratory, Yale University (1969-72); Honorary Professor Fudan University, Shanghai (1984); J.S. Guggenheim Fellow (1972); von Humboldt Senior Fellowship, Munich (1991); A.C.S. Award for Nuclear Applications in Chemistry (1976); Fellow AAAS, Member ACS, APS, FAS; Faculty Senior Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He published 386 articles in distinguished international Journals such as Physical Review Letters, Physical Review C etc. with more than 4668 citations.