Meny
 

Groundwater Hydrology

Engineering, Planning, and Management

; Azadeh Ahmadi ; Masih Akhbari

Increasing demand for water, higher standards of living, depletion of resources of acceptable quality, and excessive water pollution due to urban, agricultural, and industrial expansions have caused intense environmental, social, economic, and political predicaments. Les mer
Vår pris
2194,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager

Innbundet
Legg i
Innbundet
Legg i
Vår pris: 2194,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager

Om boka

Increasing demand for water, higher standards of living, depletion of resources of acceptable quality, and excessive water pollution due to urban, agricultural, and industrial expansions have caused intense environmental, social, economic, and political predicaments. More frequent and severe floods and droughts have changed the resiliency and ability of water infrastructure systems to operate and provide services to the public. These concerns and issues have also changed the way we plan and manage our surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater Hydrology: Engineering, Planning, and Management, Second Edition presents a compilation of the state-of-the-art subjects and techniques in the education and practice of groundwater and describes them in a systematic and integrated fashion useful for undergraduate and graduate students and practitioners. This new edition features updated materials, computer codes, and case studies throughout.


Features:








Discusses groundwater hydrology, hydraulics, and basic laws of groundwater movement







Describes environmental water quality issues related to groundwater, aquifer restoration, and remediation techniques, as well as the impacts of climate change \







Examines the details of groundwater modeling and simulation of conceptual models







Applies systems analysis techniques in groundwater planning and management







Delineates the modeling and downscaling of climate change impacts on groundwater under the latest IPCC climate scenarios





Written for students as well as practicing water resource engineers, the book develops a system view of groundwater fundamentals and model-making techniques through the application of science, engineering, planning, and management principles. It discusses the classical issues in groundwater hydrology and hydraulics followed by coverage of water quality issues. It also introduces basic tools and decision-making techniques for future groundwater development activities, taking into account regional sustainability issues. The combined coverage of engineering and planning tools and techniques, as well as specific challenges for restoration and remediation of polluted aquifers sets this book apart.





Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Contents


Preface .....................................................................................................................xxi


Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................xxv


Authors .................................................................................................................xxvii


Chapter 1 Introduction ..........................................................................................1


1.1 Introduction .................................................................................1


1.2 Water Availability ........................................................................2


1.2.1 Groundwater Availability ................................................4


1.3 Groundwater Systems .................................................................5


1.4 Science and Engineering of Groundwater ...................................6


1.5 Planning and Management of Groundwater ...............................8


1.5.1 Integrated Water Resources Management .....................10


1.5.2 Conflict Issues in Groundwater .....................................10


1.5.3 Economics of Water ......................................................11


1.5.4 Groundwater Sustainability ...........................................13


1.5.5 Supply and Demand Side Management ........................15


1.6 Tools and Techniques ................................................................17


1.7 People's Perception: Public Awareness .....................................19


1.8 Groundwater Protection: Concerns and Acts ............................20


1.8.1 Clean Water Act.............................................................21


1.8.2 Groundwater Protection ................................................21


1.8.3 USEPA Groundwater Rule ............................................22


1.8.4 California's Sustainable Groundwater


Management Act ...........................................................23


1.9 Overall Organization of This Book ...........................................24


Problems .............................................................................................25


References ..........................................................................................25


Chapter 2 Groundwater Properties ......................................................................29


2.1 Introduction ...............................................................................29


2.2 Vertical Distribution of Subsurface Water .................................31


2.3 Aquifers, Aquitards, and Aquicludes ........................................33


2.4 Types of Aquifers ......................................................................33


2.4.1 Unconfined Aquifer .......................................................33


2.4.2 Confined Aquifers .........................................................34


2.4.3 Aquitard (Leaky) Aquifer ..............................................34


2.5 Groundwater Balance ................................................................35


2.5.1 Water Balance in Confined Aquifers .............................36


2.5.2 Water Balance in Unconfined Aquifers .........................37


2.5.3 Water Balance in Unsaturated Zone ..............................37


2.6 Compressibility and Effective Stress .......................................38


2.6.1 Compressibility of Water ...........................................38


2.6.2 Effective Stress ..........................................................38


2.6.3 Compressibility of a Porous Medium ........................40


2.6.4 Effective Stress in the Unsaturated Zone ..................42


2.7 Aquifer Compressibility ..........................................................42


2.8 Aquifer Characteristics ............................................................43


2.8.1 Porosity and Void Ratio .............................................44


2.8.2 Specific Yield in Unconfined Aquifers ......................46


2.8.3 Specific Retention......................................................47


2.8.4 Storage Coefficient and Specific Storage ..................48


2.8.5 Safe Yield of Aquifers ...............................................52


2.9 Storage in the Unsaturated Zone .............................................52


2.10 Water-Level Fluctuations .........................................................55


2.11 Groundwater in Karst ..............................................................55


2.11.1 Karst Aquifer .............................................................55


2.11.2 Types of Karst............................................................56


2.11.3 Fluctuation of Karst Aquifer ......................................56


2.11.4 Recharge of Karst Aquifer .........................................57


2.11.5 Groundwater Tracing in Karst ...................................58


2.11.6 Water Resources Problems in Karst ..........................58


Problems .............................................................................................59


References ..........................................................................................61


Chapter 3 Groundwater Hydrology .....................................................................63


3.1 Introduction .............................................................................63


3.2 Groundwater Movement ..........................................................63


3.2.1 Darcy's Law ...............................................................63


3.2.1.1 Validity of Darcy's Law..............................68


3.2.2 Hydraulic Head ..........................................................68


3.2.3 Hydraulic Conductivity .............................................69


3.2.3.1 Hydraulic Conductivity in Saturated


Media ..........................................................69


3.2.3.2 Hydraulic Conductivity in Unsaturated


Media ..........................................................70


3.2.3.3 Laboratory Measurement of Hydraulic


Conductivity ...............................................72


3.2.3.4 Field Measurement of Hydraulic


Conductivity ...............................................74


3.3 Homogeneous and Isotropic Systems ......................................75


3.3.1 Hydraulic Conductivity in Multilayer Structures ......76


3.4 Transmissivity .........................................................................80


3.5 Dupuit-Forchheimer Theory of Free-Surface Flow ................81


3.6 Groundwater Flow in Unsaturated Zone .................................83


3.7 Flownets .....................................................................................88


3.7.1 Isotropic and Homogeneous Media .............................88


3.7.2 Heterogeneous Media ..................................................92


3.7.3 Anisotropic Media .......................................................93


3.8 Statistical Methods in Groundwater Hydrology ........................95


3.8.1 Normal Distribution .....................................................95


3.8.2 Lognormal Distribution ...............................................97


3.8.3 t-Distribution ................................................................98


3.8.4 Chi-Square ( 2) Distribution ......................................100


3.8.5 Errors .........................................................................100


3.8.5.1 Sampling Error ..........................................100


3.8.5.2 Standard Errors .........................................100


3.8.6 Estimating Quantiles (Percentiles) ............................101


3.8.7 Probability/Frequency/Recurrence Interval ...............102


3.9 Time Series Analysis ...............................................................103


3.9.1 Nonstationary Hydrologic Variables ..........................103


3.9.2 Hydrologic Time Series Modeling .............................104


3.9.3 Data Preparation ........................................................105


3.9.4 Parameter Estimation .................................................108


3.9.4.1 Method of Moments .................................108


3.9.4.2 Method of L-Moments ..............................109


3.9.4.3 Method of Least Squares ..........................110


3.9.4.4 Method of Maximum Likelihood .............111


3.9.5 Goodness of Fit Tests .................................................113


3.9.5.1 Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test ..............113


3.9.5.2 Tests of Normality ....................................115


3.9.6 Akaike's Information Criterion ..................................117


3.9.7 Autoregressive Modeling ...........................................117


3.9.8 Moving Average Process ............................................121


3.9.9 Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling ...............122


3.9.9.1 Generation and Forecasting Using


ARMA Models .........................................122


3.9.10 Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average


Modeling ....................................................................123


3.9.10.1 Time Series Forecasting Using


ARIMA Models ........................................124


Problems ...........................................................................................130


Appendix ..........................................................................................132


References ........................................................................................135


Chapter 4 Hydraulics of Groundwater ..............................................................139


4.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 139


4.2 Continuity Equation .................................................................139


4.3 Equation of Motion in Groundwater .......................................142


4.3.1 Groundwater Flow Equation ......................................144


4.4 Wells ........................................................................................153


4.4.1 Steady Flow into a Well ...............................................155


4.4.1.1 Confined Flow ...............................................155


4.4.1.2 Unconfined Flow ...........................................158


4.4.2 Unsteady State in a Confined Aquifer .........................161


4.4.2.1 Aquifer Test Application ...............................165


4.4.2.2 Theis Method of Solution .............................166


4.4.2.3 Cooper-Jacob Method of Solution ...............168


4.4.2.4 Variable Pumping Test ..................................172


4.4.3 Unsteady State for Unconfined Aquifer ......................175


4.5 Multiple-well Systems .............................................................181


4.6 Effective Conditions on Time-Drawdown Data ......................182


4.6.1 Recharge Boundary .....................................................182


4.6.2 Impermeable Boundary ...............................................184


4.6.3 Partially Penetrating Wells...........................................186


4.7 Design of Wells ........................................................................188


4.8 Well Construction ....................................................................191


4.8.1 Cable-Tool Drilling ......................................................191


4.8.2 Rotary Drilling Method ...............................................191


4.8.2.1 Well Development ........................................192


Problems ...........................................................................................193


References ........................................................................................197


Chapter 5 Groundwater Quality ........................................................................199


5.1 Introduction .............................................................................199


5.2 Groundwater Constituents and Contaminants .........................199


5.2.1 Inorganic Contaminants ...............................................199


5.2.2 Organic Contaminants .................................................200


5.2.3 Dissolved Gasses .........................................................200


5.2.4 Particles .......................................................................202


5.3 Water Quality Standards ..........................................................203


5.4 Groundwater Solubility ...........................................................209


5.5 Disequilibrium and Saturation Index .......................................212


5.6 Sources of Groundwater Contamination .................................214


5.6.1 Disposal of Solid Wastes .............................................214


5.6.2 Underground Petroleum Tank Leakage .......................214


5.6.3 Disposal of Liquid Wastes ...........................................215


5.6.4 Sewage Disposal on Land ............................................215


5.6.5 Agricultural Activities .................................................216


5.6.6 Other Sources of Contamination .................................216


5.7 Mass Transport of Dissolved Contaminants ............................217


5.7.1 Diffusion ......................................................................218


5.7.2 Advection.....................................................................220


5.7.3 Mechanical Dispersion ................................................221


5.7.4 Hydrodynamic Dispersion ...........................................224


5.7.5 Derivation of the Advection-Dispersion Equation ......225


5.7.6 Solute Transport Equation ...........................................233


5.7.7 Capture-Zone Curves ...................................................234


5.8 Modeling Contaminant Release ..............................................240


5.8.1 Modeling Instantaneous Release of Contaminants ......240


5.8.1.1 Fourier Analysis in Solute Transport ............240


5.8.1.2 Point Spill Model ..........................................241


5.8.1.3 Vertically Mixed Spill Model .......................241


5.8.1.4 Vertical Mixing Region ................................242


5.8.2 Modeling Continuous Release of Contaminants .........244


5.8.2.1 Development of Contaminant Plume


Models ..........................................................244


5.8.2.2 Simple Plume Model ....................................244


5.8.2.3 Point-Source Plume Model ...........................245


5.8.2.4 Gaussian-Source Plume Model .....................245


Problems ...........................................................................................248


References ........................................................................................250


Chapter 6 Groundwater Modeling ....................................................................251


6.1 Introduction .............................................................................251


6.2 Process of Modeling ................................................................251


6.3 Mathematical Modeling ...........................................................252


6.3.1 Analytical Modeling ....................................................253


6.3.2 Numerical Modeling ....................................................254


6.4 Finite-Difference Method ........................................................254


6.4.1 Forward Difference Equation ......................................257


6.4.2 Backward Difference Equation....................................261


6.4.3 Alternating Direction Implicit Method ........................262


6.4.4 Crank-Nicolson Difference Equation .........................281


6.5 Finite Element Method ............................................................284


6.5.1 Discretize the Problem Domain ...................................284


6.5.2 Derive the Approximating Equations ..........................290


6.5.3 Transient Saturated Flow Equation .............................303


6.5.4 Solute Transport Equation ...........................................311


6.6 Finite Volume Method .............................................................319


6.6.1 Steady-State One-Dimensional Flow Equation ...........319


6.6.2 Unsteady-State, One-Dimensional Flow Equation ......323


6.6.3 Two-Dimensional Flow Equation ................................324


6.6.4 Orthogonals Coordinate System ..................................333


6.7 Simulation of Groundwater Flow Using the Discrete


Kernel Approach ......................................................................336


6.8 Saturated-Unsaturated Transport (SUTRA) Code ...................346


6.9 MODFLOW .............................................................................347


Problems ...........................................................................................364


References ........................................................................................366


Chapter 7 Groundwater Planning and Management .........................................369


7.1 Introduction .............................................................................369


7.2 Data Collection ........................................................................370


7.3 Simulation Techniques ............................................................371


7.3.1 Model Calibration .......................................................372


7.3.2 Model Verification .......................................................372


7.3.3 Model Predictions .......................................................373


7.3.3.1 Artificial Neural Networks ...........................374


7.3.3.2 Fuzzy Sets and Parameter Imprecision ........389


7.3.3.3 System Dynamics .........................................395


7.3.3.4 Agent-Based Modeling .................................405


7.4 Optimization Models for Groundwater Management .............409


7.4.1 Optimization Model for Groundwater Operation ........410


7.4.2 Optimization Model for Capacity Expansion ..............413


7.4.3 Optimization Model for Water Allocation ...................417


7.4.4 Optimization Model for Conjunctive Water Use .........420


7.4.5 Optimal Groundwater Quality Management Model ...421


7.4.6 Optimization Model for Parameters of


Groundwater Model ....................................................422


7.5 Optimization Techniques .........................................................423


7.5.1 Single-Criterion Optimization .....................................424


7.5.2 Multi-criteria Optimization .........................................426


7.5.2.1 Sequential Optimization ...............................427


7.5.2.2 The -Constraint Method ..............................427


7.5.2.3 The Weighting Method .................................428


7.5.2.4 Interactive Fuzzy Approach ..........................430


7.5.3 Special Methods for Groundwater Optimization ........432


7.5.3.1 Dynamic Programming ................................432


7.5.3.2 Genetic Algorithm ........................................434


7.5.3.3 Simulation Annealing ...................................438


7.6 Conflict Resolution ..................................................................440


7.6.1 Stakeholder Involvement .............................................446


7.6.1.1 Effective Meeting Facilitation ......................447


7.6.1.2 Conflict Handling .........................................447


7.6.1.3 Quantifying Meeting Outcomes ...................448


7.6.2 Application of Game Theory in Multi-objective


Groundwater Management ..........................................449


7.6.2.1 Non-cooperative Stability Definitions ..........452


7.7 Groundwater Systems Economics ...........................................452


7.7.1 Economic Analysis of Multiple Alternatives ...............457


7.7.2 Economic Evaluation of Projects Using


Benefit-Cost Ratio Method .........................................459


7.8 Case Studies ............................................................................460


7.8.1 Case 1: Development of a System Dynamics


Model for Water Transfer ............................................460


7.8.1.1 Area Characteristics .....................................461


7.8.1.2 Conflict Resolution Model for Land


Resources Allocation in Each Zone..............461


7.8.1.3 Results of the Conflict Resolution Model ....463


7.8.1.4 Optimal Groundwater Withdrawal in


Each Zone .....................................................464


7.8.1.5 Sizing Channel Capacity ..............................464


7.8.1.6 Conclusion-Making Technologies Work ...465


7.8.2 Case 2: Conflict Resolution in Water Pollution


Control for an Aquifer .................................................466


7.8.2.1 Water Resources Characteristics


in the Study Area ..........................................466


7.8.2.2 Conflict Resolution Model ...........................468


7.8.2.3 Results and Discussion .................................471


7.8.3 Case 3: An Agent-Based Modeling Application


in Groundwater ............................................................472


7.8.3.1 Case Study Characteristics ...........................472


7.8.3.2 Model Characteristics ...................................473


7.8.3.3 Model Calibration and Verification ..............475


7.8.3.4 Results of Agent-Based Modeling ................475


7.8.4 Case 4: Development of a Noncooperative Game


in Groundwater Management ......................................476


7.8.4.1 Area Characteristics .....................................476


7.8.4.2 Simulation-Multi-objective Optimization


Model ...........................................................477


Problems ...........................................................................................482


References ........................................................................................486


Chapter 8 Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction ....................................491


8.1 Introduction .............................................................................491


8.2 Interaction between Surface and Groundwater .......................491


8.2.1 Infiltration ....................................................................492


8.2.2 Concepts of Interaction between Surface Water and


Groundwater ................................................................492


8.2.3 Bank Storage and Baseflow Recession .......................495


8.2.3.1 Master-Depletion Curve Method ..................496


8.2.3.2 Seasonal Recession Method (Meyboom


Method) ........................................................497


8.2.3.3 Constant-Discharge Baseflow Separation ....498


8.2.3.4 Constant-Slope Baseflow Separation ...........498


8.2.3.5 Concave-Baseflow Separation ......................499


8.2.4 Groundwater and Lakes ...............................................500


8.3 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater ........................502


8.3.1 Advantages of Conjunctive Use ..................................503


8.3.2 Impediments of Conjunctive Use ................................504


8.3.3 Case Study 1: Conjunctive Use of Surface


and Groundwater in Lakhaoti Canal Uttar


Pradesh, India ..............................................................504


8.3.4 Surface and Groundwater Conjunctive Use


Modeling .....................................................................507


8.3.5 Multi-objective Conjunctive Use Optimization ..........515


8.3.5.1 Groundwater Resource Sustainability


Limits ...........................................................516


8.3.6 Case Study 2: Application of Genetic Algorithms


and Artificial Neural Networks in Conjunctive Use


of Surface and Groundwater Resources ......................517


8.3.6.1 Simulation Model .........................................517


8.3.6.2 Optimization Model Framework ..................521


8.3.6.3 Results and Discussion .................................523


8.3.7 Case Study 3: Water Allocation from the


Aquifer-River System Using a Conflict


Resolution Model ........................................................524


8.3.7.1 Optimization Model Framework ..................528


8.3.7.2 Results and Discussion .................................530


8.3.8 Case Study 4: Conjunctive Use and Crop Pattern


Management ................................................................532


8.3.8.1 Optimization Model Structure ......................534


8.3.8.2 Results and Discussion .................................537


8.4 Operation of Groundwater Resources in Semiarid Region .....538


Problems ...........................................................................................540


References ........................................................................................541


Chapter 9 Aquifer Restoration and Monitoring ................................................543


9.1 Introduction .............................................................................543


9.2 Partitioning Process .................................................................544


9.3 Retardation ..............................................................................546


9.4 Natural Losses of Contaminants..............................................547


9.4.1 Volatilization ...............................................................548


9.4.2 Biological Degradation ...............................................548


9.4.3 Plant Uptake ................................................................549


9.5 Groundwater Pollution Control ...............................................550


9.5.1 Institutional Tools ........................................................550


9.5.1.1 Regional Groundwater Management ...........550


9.5.1.2 Land Zoning .................................................550


9.5.1.3 Effluent Charges/Credits ..............................550


9.5.1.4 Guidelines ....................................................551


9.5.1.5 Aquifer Standards and Criteria .....................551


9.5.2 Source Control Strategies ............................................551


9.5.3 Stabilization/Solidification Strategies .........................552


9.5.4 Well Systems ...............................................................554


9.5.5 Interceptor Systems .....................................................554


9.5.6 Surface Water Control, Capping, and Liners ...............555


9.5.7 Sheet Piling .................................................................556


9.5.8 Grouting ......................................................................557


9.5.9 Slurry Walls .................................................................557


9.6 Treatment of Groundwater ......................................................559


9.6.1 Air Sparging ................................................................559


9.6.2 Carbon Adsorption ......................................................560


9.6.3 Adding Chemicals and In Situ Chemical Oxidation ...561


9.6.4 Thermal Technologies .................................................562


9.6.5 Bioremediation Techniques .........................................563


9.6.6 Dissolved Phase (Plume) Remediation .......................564


9.6.6.1 Pump and Treat ............................................564


9.6.6.2 Permeable Reactive Barriers ........................564


9.7 Aquifer Restoration-Overdraft Issues ...................................566


9.7.1 Case Study: The National Restoration and


Remediation of Groundwater Resources in Iran .........567


9.7.1.1 General Purpose ...........................................567


9.7.1.2 Projects .........................................................567


9.7.1.3 Operational Program (Action Plans) ............568


9.7.1.4 Time Table ....................................................569


9.8 Monitoring Subsurface Water ..................................................569


9.8.1 Vadose-Zone Monitoring.............................................570


9.8.2 Groundwater Monitoring .............................................571


9.8.3 Water Quality Variable Selection ................................572


9.8.4 Geostatistical Tools for Water Quality-Monitoring


Networks .....................................................................573


9.8.4.1 Kriging .........................................................574


9.8.5 Location of Water Quality Monitoring Stations ..........577


9.8.5.1 Definition and Discretization of the


Model Domain .............................................578


9.8.5.2 Calculation of Weights for Candidate


Monitoring Sites ...........................................579


9.8.5.3 Optimal Configuration of a Monitoring


Well Network ...............................................580


9.8.5.4 Kriging Method in Designing an Optimal


Monitoring Well Network ............................581


9.8.5.5 Genetic Algorithms in Designing an


Optimal Monitoring Well Network ..............582


9.8.6 Sampling Frequency ....................................................584


9.8.6.1 Methods of Selecting Sampling Frequencies ....584


9.8.6.2 Single Station and Single Water Quality


Variable ........................................................585


9.8.6.3 Single Station and Multiple Water


Quality Variables ....................................586


9.8.6.4 Multiple Stations and a Single Water


Quality Variable ......................................587


9.8.6.5 Multiple Stations and Multiple Water


Quality Variables ....................................588


9.8.7 Entropy Theory in a Water Quality-Monitoring


Network ...................................................................588


9.8.7.1 Entropy Theory .......................................589


9.9 Managed Aquifer Recharge ...................................................591


9.9.1 Principal Consideration ...........................................591


9.9.1.1 Sources of Recharge Water and Its


Quality Considerations ...........................593


9.9.1.2 Hydrogeological Settings and


Controls on Recharge .............................594


9.9.1.3 MAR Methods ........................................595


9.9.2 MAR in Support of Groundwater Sustainability .....600


9.9.2.1 MAR in Urban Settings ..........................600


9.9.2.2 MAR in Agricultural Settings .................602


9.9.2.3 MAR in Coastal Areas ............................606


9.9.3 The United Nations MAR Portal .............................607


9.10 Summary ...............................................................................607


Problems ...........................................................................................607


References ........................................................................................609


Chapter 10 Groundwater Risk and Disaster Management ..................................615


10.1 Introduction ...........................................................................615


10.2 Groundwater Risk Assessment ..............................................616


10.2.1 Elements of Risk Assessment ..................................616


10.2.2 Assessment of Dose-Response ................................618


10.2.3 Risk Assessment Methods and Tools .......................619


10.2.3.1 Potency Factor for Cancer-Causing


Substances ..............................................620


10.2.4 Environmental Risk Analysis ..................................624


10.3 Groundwater Risk Management ............................................625


10.3.1 Groundwater Risk Mitigation ..................................626


10.4 Groundwater Disaster ............................................................627


10.4.1 Requirements for Institutional and Technical


Capacities ................................................................627


10.4.2 Prevention and Mitigation of Natural and


Man-Induced Disasters ............................................628


10.4.3 Disaster Management Phases ..................................629


10.5 Disaster Indices .....................................................................630


10.5.1 Reliability ................................................................630


10.5.2 Resiliency ................................................................636


10.5.3 Vulnerability ............................................................636


10.6 Groundwater Vulnerability ....................................................637


10.6.1 Drought ....................................................................638


10.6.1.1 Drought Indicators ..................................641


10.6.1.2 Drought Triggers .....................................641


10.6.1.3 Drought Management Strategy Plan .......643


10.6.1.4 Drought Vulnerability Maps ...................643


10.6.1.5 Drought Early Warning Systems ............644


10.6.1.6 Case Study ..............................................644


10.6.1.7 Qanats .....................................................645


10.6.2 Flood ........................................................................647


10.6.2.1 Maps of Groundwater Flood Hazard ......648


10.6.3 Land Subsidence ......................................................650


10.6.3.1 Subsidence Calculation ...........................651


10.6.3.2 Monitoring Land Subsidence ..................652


10.6.3.3 Reducing Future Subsidence ..................652


10.6.3.4 Examples of Subsidence .........................653


10.6.4 Widespread Contamination .....................................653


10.6.4.1 Vulnerability Assessment in


Groundwater Pollution ............................657


10.6.4.2 DRASTIC Method ..................................659


10.6.5 Case Study: Development of Vulnerability Maps


for a Drought ...........................................................664


10.6.5.1 Summary .................................................668


Problems ...........................................................................................669


References ........................................................................................671


Chapter 11 Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater .......................................675


11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................675


11.2 Climate Change .....................................................................676


11.3 Climate Change Impacts on Hydrological Cycle ..................677


11.3.1 Floods and Droughts ................................................678


11.3.2 Agricultural Droughts ..............................................679


11.3.3 Water Use ................................................................679


11.3.4 Water Quality ...........................................................680


11.3.5 Habitat .....................................................................680


11.3.6 Hydroelectric Power ................................................680


11.3.7 Snowpack .................................................................681


11.3.8 River Flow ...............................................................681


11.4 General Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater ...............681


11.4.1 Hydrological Components Affecting the


Groundwater ............................................................683


11.4.1.1 Temperature and Evaporation .................683


11.4.1.2 Precipitation ............................................683


11.4.1.3 Soil Moisture ..........................................685


11.4.2 Direct Impacts of Climate Change on


Groundwater ............................................................686


11.4.2.1 Groundwater Recharge ...........................687


11.4.2.2 Recharge Estimation Methods ................688


11.4.2.3 Aquifers Recharging ...............................689


11.4.2.4 Hydraulic Conductivity ...........................689


11.4.3 Indirect Impacts of Climate Change on


Groundwater ............................................................690


11.4.3.1 Sea-Level Rise ........................................690


11.4.3.2 Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal


Aquifers ..................................................691


11.4.3.3 Storm Surge and Saltwater Intrusion ......693


11.4.3.4 Ghyben-Herzberg Relation between


Freshwater and Saline Waters .................694


11.4.3.5 Island Freshwater Lens ...........................695


11.4.3.6 Land Use and Land Cover ......................698


11.5 Groundwater Quantity and Quality Concerns .......................698


11.5.1 Depletion of Groundwater Table .............................698


11.5.2 Deterioration of Groundwater Quality ....................699


11.5.2.1 Increasing Groundwater Contamination ....699


11.5.2.2 Salinization of Groundwater by


Sea-Level Rise ........................................699


11.6 Adaptation to Climate Change ..............................................700


11.6.1 Artificial Recharge ...................................................701


11.6.2 Modification of Groundwater Extraction Pattern ....701


11.6.3 Injection Barrier .......................................................702


11.6.4 Subsurface Barrier ...................................................702


11.6.5 Tidal Regulators .......................................................702


11.7 IPCC Assessment Report .......................................................702


11.8 Climate Change Simulation ...................................................704


11.8.1 Spatial Variability ....................................................705


11.8.1.1 Recent Communities' Scenarios


Development ...........................................705


11.8.1.2 Downscaling ...........................................707


11.8.1.3 Regional Models .....................................708


11.8.2 Statistical Downscaling ...........................................709


11.9 Downscaling Models .............................................................712


11.9.1 Statistical Downscaling Model ................................712


11.9.2 LARS-WG Model ...................................................715


11.10 New Insights-Risks and Vulnerabilities ............................724


11.11 Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability in an


Aquifer .................................................................................725


11.12 Conclusion ...........................................................................732


Problems ...........................................................................................732


References ........................................................................................734


Index ...................................................................................................................... 739

Om forfatteren

Mohammad Karamouz is a professor at the University of Tehran. He is an internationally


known water resources engineer and consultant. He is licensed as a PE


in the state of New York since 1985. Dr. Karamouz is the former dean of engineering


at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. He is also a fellow of the American


Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and a diplomat of the American Academy of


Water Resources Engineers.


Dr. Karamouz received his BS in civil engineering from Shiraz University, his


MS in water resources and environmental engineering from George Washington


University, and his PhD in hydraulic and systems engineering from Purdue University.


He served as a member of the task committee on urban water cycle in UNESCO-IHP


VI and was a member of the planning committee for the development of a 5-year


plan (2008-2013) for UNESCO's International Hydrology Program (IHP VII).


Among many professional positions and achievements, he also serves on a number


of task committees for the ASCE. In his academic career spanning 35 years, he


has held positions as a tenured professor at Pratt Institute (Schools of Engineering


and Architecture in Brooklyn) and at Polytechnic University (Tehran, Iran). He was


a visiting professor in the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources at the


University of Arizona, Tucson, 2000-2003 and a research professor at NYU,


2009-2014. He was also the founder and former president of Arch Construction and


Consulting Co. Inc. in New York City.


His teaching and research interests include integrated water resources planning


and management, flood resilient cities, groundwater hydrology and pollution,


drought analysis and management, water quality modeling and water pollution,


decision support systems, climate forecasting, and the conjunctive use of surface


and groundwater. He has more than 350 research and scientific publications, books,


and book chapters to his credit, including three books: Urban Water Engineering


and Management and Hydrology & Hydroclimatology published by CRC Press in


2010, and 2012, respectively, Water Resources System Analysis published by Lewis


Publishers in 2003, and a coauthored book entitled Urban Water Cycle Processes


and Interactions published by Taylor & Francis Group in 2007.


Professor Karamouz serves internationally as a consultant to both private and


governmental agencies, such as UNESCO and the World Bank. Dr. Karamouz is


the recipient of the 2013 ASCE Service to the Profession and 2018 ASCE Hydraulic


Engineering Awards.


Azadeh Ahmadi is an associate professor in the Department of Civil Engineering


at Isfahan University of Technology (IUT). She received her BS in civil engineering


and her MS in water resources engineering from IUT, and her PhD in water


resources management from the University of Tehran. She was a research associate


in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of


Bristol through a UK fellowship in 2008 and at the Eawag Institute of ETH University


in 2017. Dr. Ahmadi is an international expert and consultant in the application of


systems engineering in the planning of aquifer-river-reservoir systems. Her teaching


and research interests include groundwater modeling, water engineering and management,


systems analysis, the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater, conflict


resolution, climate change impacts studies, analysis of risk and uncertainty, and


development of decision support systems.


Masih Akhbari is the founder of Global Water Resources Inc., where he develops


interdisciplinary models and provides consultant services for water resources


management and offers expert witness services on cases with disputes over the management


of water resources systems. He is also a project engineer at Larry Walker


Associates, where he supports development of groundwater sustainability plans


under California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act. Prior to these positions,


he served as a senior water resources engineer at Riverside Technology Inc., a


cutting-edge company that provides innovative IT-based solutions to develop decision


support systems for water resources.


Dr. Akhbari obtained his PhD from Colorado State University (CSU), followed


by two years of postdoctoral research at the University of California, Davis to


investigate the effects of climate change on streamflow, stream temperature, and


cold-water habitats for the California Energy Commission, and at CSU to assess


the United States perspective on the water-energy-food nexus for the Department


of State and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. His journey to apply increasingly complex


tools of analysis to thorny problems around the world has already led to the


development of interdisciplinary decision-support tools to increase the security of


water, energy, and food systems. He has employed hydrologic, engineering, systems


analysis, and social science concepts to develop frameworks and tools that support


informed decision-making for improved management of water resources.


Through his academic background, along with his professional experience outside


of academia, he has gained a unique blend of research experience and knowledge


of the broader impacts of the technological advances to deal with the most urgent


global water issues. He has built a rigorous perspective on how scientific, engineering,


and systems analysis techniques can be implemented to support resources


planning and management. Dr. Akhbari has also served as a review panelist for the


National Science Foundation's Graduate Research Fellowship Program, as a discussion


panelist at the American Water Resources Associations Annual Conference,


as a reviewer for multiple scientific journals, as a session chair and convener at the


American Geophysical Union Fall Meetings, and as a coadvisor on multiple masters


and PhD theses.