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Modelling Approaches to Understand Salinity Variations in a Highly Dynamic Tidal River

The Case of the Shatt al-Arab River

This book reports the first systematic monitoring and modelling study on water availability, water quality and seawater intrusion of the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) on the border of Iraq and Iran, where causes and concentration levels of salinity have not yet been fully understood, let alone addressed, leading to conflicting perceptions of its origin (external or internal), the natural conditions and the practices that can explain the current critical conditions. Les mer
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Paperback
Legg i
Vår pris: 826,-

(Paperback) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
På grunn av Brexit-tilpasninger og tiltak for å begrense covid-19 kan det dessverre oppstå forsinket levering.

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This book reports the first systematic monitoring and modelling study on water availability, water quality and seawater intrusion of the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) on the border of Iraq and Iran, where causes and concentration levels of salinity have not yet been fully understood, let alone addressed, leading to conflicting perceptions of its origin (external or internal), the natural conditions and the practices that can explain the current critical conditions. Current scientific knowledge on the SAR salinity problem is deficient, partially due to the complex and dynamic interaction between marine and terrestrial salinity sources, including return flows by water users of the different water sectors in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers upstream of the SAR.





The development of a new series of monitoring stations and various modelling approaches helped to better understand the interactions between these different sources. The comprehensive and detailed dataset formed the basis for a validated analytical model that can predict the extent of seawater relative to other salinity sources in an estuary, and for a hydrodynamic model that can predict salinity changes. The adaptability of the models to changing conditions makes them directly applicable by water managers. The procedure can be applied to other comparable systems.

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Innholdsfortegnelse

Summary


1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.1.1 Water availability and water scarcity
1.1.2 Seawater intrusion
1.1.3 Water Resources Management
1.1.4 Water Allocation
1.1.5 Environmental Flow and Water Quality
1.1.6 The need to consider combined salinity sources
1.2 The study area: The Shatt al-Arab River
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Research Approach
1.4.1 Research Objective
1.4.2 Research Questions
1.4.3 Contribution of this study


2 Research methods and material
2.1 Research process
2.2 Monitoring design and materials
2.2.1 Water and salinity levels
2.2.2 Boat measurement method
2.2.3 River discharge and geometry
2.2.4 Water quality parameters
2.3 Quantitative Evaluation
2.4 Simulation Model
2.4.1 Analytical approach for estimating seawater intrusion
2.4.2 Physically based modelling for simulating combined salinity sources
2.5 Integrated use of optimization with simulation modelling for water allocation
2.6 Performance evaluation of the model
2.7 Cooperation with Local Authorities


3 Water system evaluation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The SAR water system
3.2.1 The Euphrates River
3.2.2 The Tigris River
3.2.3 The Karkheh River
3.2.4 The Karun River
3.2.5 Mesopotamian Marshlands
3.3 Hydrology of the SAR
3.3.1 Inter-annual flow variation
3.3.2 Seasonal flows variation
3.4 Water quality
3.4.1 Temporal and spatial variation in salinity
3.4.2 Water quality variability
3.5 Water resources development and management
3.5.1 Impact of water infrastructure
3.5.2 Impact of return flows
3.6 Water security of the region: conflict versus cooperation
3.7 Conclusions


4 Quantification of salinity levels and variability
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Results of salinity analysis
4.2.1 Salinity variations along the SAR
4.2.2 Salinity dynamics at a monthly time scale
4.2.3 Daily and hourly salinity changes
4.2.4 Upstream and downstream relationships
4.2.5 Salinity changes from upstream to downstream
4.3 Discussion: factors governing the salinity variations
4.3.1 Salinity changes within reach R1
4.3.2 Salinity changes within reach R2
4.3.3 Salinity changes within reaches R3 and R4
4.3.4 Seawater intrusion length
4.4 The salinity levels and implications for the users
4.5 Conclusions and recommendations


5 Analitical approach for predicting of seawater intrusion
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Theory of the analytical model
5.3 Salinity modelling
5.3.1 Geometric characteristics
5.3.2 Vertical salinity profile
5.3.3 Longitudinal salinity profile
5.3.4 The predictive model
5.4 Conclusions


6 Impacts of combined salinity resources on the water resources management
6.1 Introduction
6

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