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Understanding Catchment Processes and Hydrological Modelling in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

The Abay / Upper Blue Nile basin contributes the largest share of discharge to the river Nile. However, the basin exhibits large spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and runoff. Moreover, human activities also impact hydrological processes through intensive agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation, which substantially affect the basin hydrology. Les mer
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Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
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The Abay / Upper Blue Nile basin contributes the largest share of discharge to the river Nile. However, the basin exhibits large spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and runoff. Moreover, human activities also impact hydrological processes through intensive agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation, which substantially affect the basin hydrology. Thus, understanding hydrological processes and hydro-climatic variables at various spatio-temporal scales is essential for sustainable management of water resources in the region.


This research investigates the hydrology of the basin in depth using a range of methods at various spatio-temporal scales. The methods include long-term trend analysis of hydroclimatic variables, hydrologic responses analysis of land cover change, stable isotope techniques and process based rainfallrunoff modelling. A combination of field investigations with new measurements of precipitation, water levels and stable isotopes as well as existing hydro-climatic data offered gaining new insights about runoff generation processes in headwater catchments. The use of rainfall-runoff modelling in two meso-scale catchments of the Abay basin depict that a single model structure in a lumped way for the entire Abay basin cannot represent all the dominant hydrological processes. The results of the different approaches demonstrated the potential of the methods to better understand the basin hydrology in a data scarce region.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SUMMARY
LIST OF SYMBOLS
LIST OF ACRONYMS

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 UNDERSTANDING HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
1.3 HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.6 DISSERTATION STRUCTURE


2 STUDY AREA: THE ABAY/UPPER BLUE NILE RIVER BASIN


3 HYDRO CLIMATIC TRENDS IN THE ABAY/UPPER BLUE NILE BASIN
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 STUDY AREA AND DATA SOURCES
3.2.1 Study area
3.2.2 Data sources
3.3 METHODOLOGY
3.3.1 Mann Kendall test
3.3.2 Pettitt test for change point detection
3.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.4.1 Trends analysis of precipitation, temperature and streamflow
3.4.2 Analysis of change points
3.5 CONCLUSIONS


4 WATER BALANCE MODELLING OF THE UPPER BLUE NILE CATCHMENTS USING A TOP DOWN APPROACH
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 STUDY AREA AND INPUT DATA
4.2.1 Study area
4.2.2 Input data
4.3 METHODOLOGY
4.3.1 The Budyko framework
4.3.2 Catchment water balance model at annual time scale
4.3.3 Catchment water balance model at monthly time scale
4.3.4 Parameter estimation, sensitivity and uncertainty assessment
4.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.4.1 Annual water balance
4.4.2 Modelling streamflow on monthly timescale
4.5 CONCLUSIONS


5 HYDROLOGIC RESPONSES TO LAND COVER CHANGE: THE CASE OF JEDEB MESO SCALE CATCHMENT, ABAY/UPPER BLUE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2. STUDY AREA
5.3 DATA SOURCES
5.3.1 Hydro meteorological data
5.3.2 Land use land cover data
5.4. METHODOLOGY
5.4.1 Flow variability analysis
5.4.2 Monthly Flow duration curve
5.4.3 Hydrological simulation model
5.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.5.1 Flow variability analysis
5.5.2 Indicators of hydrologic alteration
5.5.3 The hydrological simulation model
5.5.4 Evaluation of the flow regime based on the flow duration curve
5.5.5 Effects of land use/land cover (LULC) change on streamflow
5.6 CONCLUSIONS


6 CHARACTERISATION OF STABLE ISOTOPES TO IDENTIFY RESIDENCE TIMES AND RUNOFF COMPONENTS IN TWO MESO SCALE CATCHMENTS IN THE ABAY/UPPER BLUE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2. STUDY AREA
6.3 METHODOLOGY
6.3.1 Hydro meteorological data collection
6.3.2 Field measurements and sampling
6.3.3 Laboratory analysis
6.3.4 Hydrograph separation on a seasonal timescale
6.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
6.4.1 Meteoric water lines
6.4.2 Spatio temporal variation of isotope composition in precipitation, spring water and streamflow
6.4.3 Potential moisture source areas for the study area
6.4.4 Hydrograph separation on a seasonal timescale
6.4.5 Uncertainty ana

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