Routledge Handbook of South Asian Criminology

K. Jaishankar (Redaktør)

Although the literature and cultural practices of the South Asian region demonstrate a rich understanding of criminology, this handbook is the first to focus on crime, criminal justice, and victimization in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Les mer
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Although the literature and cultural practices of the South Asian region demonstrate a rich understanding of criminology, this handbook is the first to focus on crime, criminal justice, and victimization in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

South Asia's rapid growth in population and economy continues to introduce transformations in social behaviors, including those related to criminality and victimization. Readers of this handbook will gain a comprehensive look at criminology, criminal justice, and victimology in the South Asian region, including processes, historical perspectives, politics, policies, and victimization. This collection of chapters penned by scholars from all eight of the South Asian nations, as well as the US, UK, Australia, and Belgium, will advance the study and practice of criminology in the South Asian region and carry implications for other regions.

The Routledge Handbook of South Asian Criminology provides a wealth of information on criminological issues and their effect on the countries and governments' efforts to mitigate them. It is essential reading for students and scholars of South Asian criminology, criminal justice, and politics.



Introduction: Towards a South Asian Criminology

K. Jaishankar


1. Afghanistan: State and Non-State-Oriented Criminal Justice Systems

Ali Wardak

2. Bangladesh: Issues and Introspections on Crime and Criminal Justice

Mahfuzul I. Khondaker, Mohammed Bin Kashem, and Mohammad Azizur Rahman

3. Bhutan: Penal Laws, Crimes and Criminal Justice Processes

Debarati Halder

4. India: A Historical Perspective of Criminal Justice System

Dalbir Bharti

5. Maldives: Towards the Reformation of Criminal Justice System

Aishath Ali Naz and Aminath Shifaya Ibrahim

6. Nepal: Institutions in the Criminal Justice System and the Need for Reforms

Mandira Sharma

7. Pakistan: Criminal Justice Processes and Issues of Crime, Policing, Judiciary, and Prisons

Amit Thakre

8. Sri Lanka: Criminal Justice System and Rule of Law

Jeeva Niriella


9. Criminal Justice Tenets in Manusmriti: A Critical Appraisal of the Ancient Indian Hindu Code

K. Jaishankar and Debarati Halder

10. Witchcraft Accusation, Victimization and Demonology in Nepal

Binita Pandey

11. Crime and Justice in Ancient South India (Sangam Age): Gleanings from Tamil Literature

P. Madhava Soma Sundaram, K. Jaishankar, and E. Enanalap Periyar

12. Goondas of Calcutta: Crimes and Policing in the Colonial India

Sugata Nandi

13. Opium Production in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan: Historical Milieu and Counter-Measures

James Windle

14. Homicide in Ancient, Medieval, British, and Contemporary India

K. Jaishankar and Debarati Halder


15. Terror and Trafficking in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India: A Routine Activity Approach

Tony Murphy

16. War, Crime, Justice and Social order in Afghanistan

John Braithwaite and Ali Wardak

17. Organised Crime, Gangs and the Complexity of Group Offending in Bangladesh

Sally Atkinson-Sheppard

18. Crimes of War in Sri Lanka

International Crisis Group

19. Madaris and Suicide Terrorism in Pakistan: Is There an Association?

Fashiuddin and Imran Ahmad Sajid

20. Post-Conflict Crime and Violence in Nepal: Trends, Dynamics and Drivers

D.B. Subedi

21. Religious Terrorism in Bangladesh: Patterns, Trends and Causes

Subrata Banarjee, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, and Mohammed Jahirul Islam


22. Human Trafficking in South Asia: Regional Cooperation and Responses

Zahid Shahab Ahmed

23. Religious, Societal Reflection and Rights of Transgender in India

Asha P. Soman

24. Transitional Justice Processes in Bangladesh

Ummey Qulsum Nipun

25. 'Nirbhaya Incident' and Juvenile Justice Policies in India: A Situational Analysis

R. Rochin Chandra

26. Crime Among Young Offenders in Bhutan: Trends, Factors and Determinants

Lham Dorji, Sonam Gyeltshen, and Thomas Minten


27. Women Victims of War and Crime in Afghanistan

Kirthi Jayakumar

28. Human Trafficking in Nepal: A Victimological Perspective

Sandhya Basini Sitoula

29. Political Crime Victimization in Bangladesh

Md. Shakhawat Hossain

30. Traditional Practices and Victimization of Women in Nepal: The Case of Chhaupadi

Binita Pandey, Manisha Rajak, Pramila Pantha, and Roshi Bhandaree

31. Rohingyas in Myanmar and Bangladesh: An Examination of Collective and Secondary Victimization

S. Manikandan

Conclusion: South Asian Criminology in a Crosroad

K. Jaishankar

Om forfatteren

K. Jaishankar is presently the Professor of Criminology and Head of the Department of Criminology at the Raksha Shakti University (Police and Internal Security University), Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Prior to this present position, he served as a faculty member at the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. He is the recipient of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI) SCOPUS Young Scientist Award 2012-Social Sciences and ISC-S.S. Srivastava Award for Excellence in Teaching and Research in Criminology. He was a Commonwealth Fellow (2009-2010) at the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, School of Law, University of Leeds, UK. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Cyber Criminology ( and editor-in-chief of International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences ( He is the founding president of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV) ( and founding executive director (honorary) of the Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling (CCVC) ( He was a discussant in the "Opening discussion: Focusing on victims of crime-comparing crime patterns and improving practice. Researchers' advice to policy" of the Stockholm Criminology Symposium held during June 11-13, 2012, in Stockholm, Sweden, and responded to the questions of Beatrice Ask, the Swedish minister for justice, and Paula Teixeria da Cruz, the Portuguese minister for justice. He was a Keynote Speaker at the 15th World Society of Victimology Symposium held in July 2015 at Perth, Australia, and at the 14th World Society of Victimology Symposium held in May 2012 at The Hague, the Netherlands. He was appointed as an International Ambassador of the British Society of Criminology (BSC). He is the founding father of the academic discipline cyber criminology (2007) and is the proponent of the space transition theory of cybercrimes (2008). His areas of academic competence are cyber criminology, victimology, crime mapping, GIS, communal violence, policing, and crime prevention. Visit for more information.