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Water Productivity of Sunflower under Different Irrigation Regimes at Gezira Clay Soil, Sudan

The Gezira Scheme is Sudan's oldest and largest gravity irrigation system. The scheme has played an important role in the economic development of the country, and is a major source of foreign exchange. Les mer
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Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
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Om boka

The Gezira Scheme is Sudan's oldest and largest gravity irrigation system. The scheme has played an important role in the economic development of the country, and is a major source of foreign exchange. The farming system of the Gezira Scheme is dominated by crop production. The main crops grown are sorghum, wheat, groundnut and the oilseed crop sesame. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oil crop in the world and a new edible oil crop in Sudan. Knowledge of the effects of irrigation scheduling on sunflower production and water productivity under water stress conditions is becoming increasingly important. Irrigation scheduling is particularly important since many field crops are more sensitive to water deficit at specific phonological stages. Sunflower has several growth stages: emergence, vegetative, reproductive, flowering, seed formation and maturity. Water stress in each stage results in reduction in seed yield and oil content. The treatments in the test plots, which were conducted to study the effect of water stress at different growth stages, showed that sunflower was significantly affected by water stress that occurred in the sensitive flowering and seed formation stages. Highest seed yield was obtained when water stress was avoided during these stages. The AquaCrop model was used to simulate the seed yield and water productivity. The model was able to precisely simulate seed yield, but overestimated water productivity under different irrigation treatments.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

1 Introduction
1.1 Structure of the thesis


2 Background and objectives
2.1 Country characteristics
2.2 Water resources in Sudan
2.3 Crop production in Sudan
2.4 Increase in total crop production
2.5 Land use and land cover
2.6 Problem description
2.7 Hypothesis
2.8 Research questions
2.9 Research objectives


3 Agriculture in Sudan
3.1 Agricultural practices
3.1.1 Rainfed agriculture
3.1.2 Irrigated agriculture
3.1.3 Flood/spate irrigation agriculture
3.2 Water management for agriculture
3.3 Agricultural policies and strategies
3.4 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) description
3.5 Sunflower growth stages
3.6 Sunflower seed production


4 Irrigation schemes in Sudan
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Surface irrigation
4.2.1 Supplemental irrigation (SI)
4.3 Irrigation scheduling
4.4 Water balance
4.5 Furrow irrigation
4.6 Main irrigation scheme
4.6.1 New Halfa Scheme
4.6.2 Rahad Scheme
4.7 Gezira Irrigation Scheme
4.7.1 Description of the scheme area
4.7.2 General climatic conditions
4.7.3 Design of Gezira Scheme
4.7.4 Gezira clay soil
4.7.5 Water application management in the field
4.7.6 Water users associations in Gezira Scheme


5 Crop coefficient (Kc) for irrigated Winter Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L)
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Study area
5.3 Calculation method
5.4 Reference evapotranspiration (ETo)
5.5 Evapotranspiration (ETc)
5.5.1 Soil moisture measurements
5.6 Estimation of the Winter Sunflower crop coefficient (Kc)
5.7 Concluding remarks


6 Deficit irrigation effect on Sunflower production under different environmental conditions
6.1 Concept of deficit irrigation
6.2 Deficit irrigation and Sunflower yield


7 Field experiments and study area
7.1 Description of the study area
7.2 Climate of Gezira area
7.3 Experiment One (winter season 2011, 2012 and 2013)
7.3.1 Experiment description and lay out
7.3.2 Irrigation water measurement
7.4 Experiment Two (summer season 2012 and 2013)
7.5 Experiment Three (winter season 2012/2013 and 2013/2014)
7.6 Crop parameters measurement


8 Results and discussion of the field experiments
8.1 Different irrigation intervals (experiment One)
8.1.1 Seed yield (kg/ha)
8.1.2 Oil content (%)
8.1.3 Application of irrigation water
8.2 Concluding remarks on experiment One
8.3 Experiment Two (summer seasons 2012 and 2013)
8.4 Experiment Three (winter seasons 2012/2013 and 2013/2014)
8.4.1 Seed yield (kg/ha)
8.4.2 Number of seeds per head
8.4.3 Oil and prot

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