Meny
 
Advances in Applied Microbiology - 
      Allen I. Laskin
    
      Geoffrey M. Gadd
    
      Sima Sariaslani

Advances in Applied Microbiology

; Geoffrey M. Gadd ; Sima Sariaslani

«PRAISE FOR THE SERIES "No laboratory scientist, field worker or technical administrator can afford to pass it up."-ASM NEWS "The topics are well supported by an extensive bibliography and provide a rich source of current information."-BIOPHARM»

Published since 1959, Advances in Applied Microbiology continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in Microbiology.

The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology. Les mer
Vår pris
1604,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager

Innbundet
Legg i
Innbundet
Legg i
Vår pris: 1604,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager

Published since 1959, Advances in Applied Microbiology continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in Microbiology.

The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology. Recent areas covered include bacterial diversity in the human gut, protozoan grazing of freshwater biofilms, metals in yeast fermentation processes and the interpretation of host-pathogen dialogue through microarrays.

Eclectic volumes are supplemented by thematic volumes on various topics including Archaea and “Sick Building Syndrome”. Impact factor for 2006: 1.96.
FAKTA
Utgitt:
Forlag: Academic Press Inc.(London) Ltd
Innbinding: Innbundet
Språk: Engelsk
ISBN: 9780444531919
Format: 23 x 15 cm
KATEGORIER:

Bla i alle kategorier

VURDERING
Gi vurdering
Les vurderinger







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Contributorsxi
1. A Ferment of Fermentations: Reflections on the Production of Commodity Chemicals Using Microorganisms1




Ronald Bentley and Joan W. Bennett





I. Introduction

2




II. What Is Fermentation? What Is a Fermentation Industry?

4




III. When Did the Production of Commodity Chemicals by Microorganisms Begin?

6




A. Initial use of bacteria

7




B. Initial use of fungi

8




IV. Submerged Cultures

11




A. An interlude

11




B. Citric acid—the Wisconsin submerged process

13




V. World War I Spurs Fermentation Technology to Produce Glycerol and Acetone

14




A. Glycerol

14




B. Acetone, butanol, ethanol

16




VI. Gluconic Acid, Kojic Acid

18




VII. Penicillin

19




A. The work of Harold Raistrick

19




B. The development of penicillin at Oxford

22




C. The experience in the Unites States and development of submerged fermentation

26




D. Submerged fermentation for penicillin

27




Acknowledgments

28




References

29
2. Submerged Culture Fermentation of "Higher Fungi": The Macrofungi33




Mariana L. Fazenda, Robert Seviour, Brian McNeil, and Linda M. Harvey





I. Introduction

34




A. Definition of "higher fungi"

34




B. General considerations

37




C. Life cycles

38




II. Growth in Submerged Culture

42




A. Solid-substrate fermentation vs. submerged liquid fermentation

42




B. Isolation and maintenance of the cultures

45




C. Effects of process variables on growth and product formation

45




D. Fermentation strategies

68




E. Optimization of culture conditions

71




III. Products and Applications

74




A. General comments

74




IV. Conclusions

92




References

92
3. Bioprocessing Using Novel Cell Culture Systems105




Sarad Parekh, Venkatesh Srinivasan, and Michael Horn





I. Introduction

106




II. Plant Cell Culture Development for Scale-Up

112




A. Plant suspension culture initiation and establishment

112




B. Development of homogeneous cell lines

113




C. Development of single cell-derived cell lines

114




D. Development of synchronized cell lines

114




E. Example of plant cell culture—rice suspension cells

114




F. Transformation and transgenic cell line development

116




G. Cell banking and cryopreservation

118




H. Quality control considerations on plant cell fermentation

122




III. Industrial-Scale Production with Plant Suspension Cell Cultures

125




A. Scale-up issues with plant suspension cell cultures

126




B. Process optimization

127




C. Product formation

137




D. Process operation strategies on scale-up

139




IV. Concluding Remarks

140




Acknowledgments

140




References

140
4. Nanotechnology in the Detection and Control of Microorganisms145




Pengju G. Luo and Fred J. Stutzenberger





I. Introduction

146




II. Polymeric Nanomaterials

149




A. Carbohydrate-biofunctionalized polymeric nanomaterials

149




B. Carbohydrate- or antibody-conjugated nanotubes

151




C. Chitosan nanoparticles

152




D. Nanomaterials for vaccine developments

153




E. Other polymeric nanomaterials

154




III. Fluorescence Detection of Microorganisms

155




A. Dye-doped silica nanoparticles

155




B. Quantum dots (QDs) for fluorescent detection

156




C. Carbon-based fluorescent nanoparticles

161




IV. Metallic Nanomaterials

162




A. Elemental metal nanomaterials

162




B. Metal oxide nanomaterials

165




C. Magnetic nanomaterials for the detection of microbes

167




V. Concluding Remarks

169




Acknowledgments

172




References

172
5. Metabolic Aspects of Aerobic Obligate Methanotrophy183




Yuri A. Trotsenko and John Colin Murrell





I. Introduction

184




II. Milestones in Aerobic Obligate Methanotrophy: A Brief Historical Overview

185




A. Discovery of aerobic methanotrophs and first impacts on methanotrophy

185




B. Renaissance of interest in the biology and biochemistry of methanotrophs

188




C. New findings (insights) in methanotrophy assessed by molecular approaches

192




III. Pathways of Sequential Oxidation of Methane to CO2

194




A. Enzymes of primary methane oxidation

194




B. Soluble methane monooxygenase

195




C. Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO)

196




D. Oxidation of methanol by methanol dehydrogenase

199




E. Oxidation of formaldehyde by a linear pathway

201




F. Pterin-dependent oxidation of formaldehyde

202




G. Oxidation of formate to CO2

204




IV. Pathways of Primary C1 Assimilation and Intermediary Metabolism

205




A. Assimilation of formaldehyde via the Quayle ribulosemonophosphate and serine pathways

205




B. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation

211




C. Biochemical basis/rationale of obligate methanotrophy

212




V. Conclusions and Outlook

215




Note Added in Proof

217




Acknowledgments

217




References

217
6. Bacterial Efflux Transport in Biotechnology231




Tina K. Van Dyk





I. Introduction

232




II. Important Efflux Transport Protein Families

232




A. Energy sources and physiological roles

233




B. Functions in gram negative and gram positive bacteria

234




C. Substrate specificity

235




D. Internet resources

235




III. Discovery of Efflux Transport Function

236




A. Global gene expression analyses

236




B. Genetic selections and screens

237




IV. Engineering Efflux Transport to Improve Amino Acid Production

237




A. L-Lysine

238




B. L-Threonine

238




C. L-Phenylalanine

239




D. L-Cysteine

240




V. Efflux Transport in Whole Cell Biotransformations

240




A. Solvent tolerant bacteria

240




B. Mitigation of substrate and product toxicity

241




VI. Limits on Efflux Transport Utility in Metabolic Engineering

242




A. Hydrophobicity considerations

242




B. Availability of known transporters and protein engineering

242




VII. Future Prospects for Efflux Transport in Biotechnology

243




References

243
7. Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment, with Particular Reference to MRSA249




William Gaze, Colette O'Neill, Elizabeth Wellington, and Peter Hawkey





I. Introduction

250




II. Evolution of Resistance

250




A. Origins of antibiotic resistance genes

251




B. Mechanisms of resistance

253




III. Mechanisms of Horizontal Gene Transfer

254




A. The role of integrons in resistance gene mobility

255




B. Coselection for resistance genes

257




IV. Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in the Environment

258




A. Sewage sludge

258




B. Farm animals

260




C. Transfer from the environment to the clinic

262




V. MRSA in the Nonclinical Environment

264




A. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

264




B. Environmental reservoirs of MRSA

265




C. Pig associated MRSA

266




D. Cattle associated MRSA

267




E. Horse associated MRSA

268




F. MRSA in companion animals

269




VI. Conclusions

270




References

270
8. Host Defense Peptides in the Oral Cavity281




Deirdre A. Devine and Celine Cosseau





I. Introduction

282




II. Host–Microbe Interactions in the Mouth

283




A. The normal oral microbiota

283




B. Microbiota associated with disease

284




III. HDP Expression in the Mouth

288




A. Innate defenses in the mouth

288




B. Histatins

289




C. Defensins

289




D. Cathelicidin LL-37

296




IV. Functions of HDPs in the Mouth

298




A. Antibacterial functions

298




B. Antifungal activities

300




C. Antiviral activities

301




D. Non-antimicrobial functions

302




V. Roles of HDPs in Oral Health and Disease

303




A. Microbial induction of oral HDP expression

304




B. Expression in oral health and disease

306




VI. Therapeutic Applications

308




VII. Conclusions

310
Acknowledgments312
References312
Index323
Geoffrey Gadd is a Professor at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK Sima Sariaslani - PhD in microbial Biochemistry - UK. Professor of microbiology/biochemistry - IranResearch at Univ. of Calif, Riverside - US. Research at Univ. of Iowa - US. Research at DuPont Central Research and Development - USIntellectual property - DuPont - US