Hygiene in Food Processing - 
      H.L.M. Lelieveld
      John Holah
      David Napper

Hygiene in Food Processing

Principles and Practice

H.L.M. Lelieveld (Redaktør) ; John Holah (Redaktør) ; David Napper (Redaktør)

The hygienic processing of food concerns both potential hazards in food products and the regulation, design, and management of food processing facilities. This second edition of Hygiene in Food Processing gives a revised overview of the practices for safe processing and incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants. Les mer
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The hygienic processing of food concerns both potential hazards in food products and the regulation, design, and management of food processing facilities. This second edition of Hygiene in Food Processing gives a revised overview of the practices for safe processing and incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants.

Part one addresses microbial risks in foods and the corresponding regulation in the European Union. Part two discusses the hygienic design of food factory infrastructure, encompassing the design and materials for the factory itself, as well as food processing equipment. This edition includes a new chapter on the control of compressed gases used to pneumatically operate equipment. Part three focuses on cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing. The chapter on cleaning in place also considers more cost-effective systems, and complements the additional chapter on maintenance of equipment. These chapters also explore issues such as the hygiene of workers, potential infection by foreign bodies, and pest control. Further, the chapter on microbiological sampling explains how to calculate the risk of contamination depending on the product's environment.

This essential second edition is useful to professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry. It provides a comprehensive, yet concise and practical reference source for food plant managers, suppliers of food processing equipment, building contractors, and food inspectors looking for an authoritative introduction to hygiene regulation, hygienic design, and sanitation.
Forlag: Woodhead Publishing Ltd
Innbinding: Innbundet
Språk: Engelsk
ISBN: 9780857094292
Utgave: 2. utg.

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
Part I: Microbial food safety risks and hygiene regulation

1: Food hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)

1.1 Introduction
1.2 History of hygiene regulation in the European Union (EU)
1.3 Key elements of hygiene regulation in the EU
1.4 Content of the hygiene regulations
1.5 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)
1.6 European hygiene legislation with regard to equipment
1.7 Hygiene regulations in relation to private food safety standards
1.8 Conclusion
1.9 Sources of further information and advice

2: Hazards, sources and vectors of contamination

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Physical contaminants
2.3 Chemical contaminants
2.4 Microbiological contamination
2.5 Hazard sources
2.6 Hazard vectors and controls
2.7 Recommended procedure for developing a processing environment plan (PEP)
2.8 Conclusion

Part II: Hygienic design of food factory infrastructure

3: Hygienic factory design for food processing

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design, construction and maintenance of the site
3.3 Building structure
3.4 High-care/risk areas
3.5 Storage areas
3.6 Personnel areas
3.7 Cleaning facilities: food, equipment and chemicals
3.8 Roofs
3.9 Floors
3.10 Drainage
3.11 Walls
3.12 Doors
3.13 Windows
3.14 Ceilings
3.15 Ventilation and temperature control
3.16 Lighting
3.17 Services
3.18 Water
3.19 Food and solid waste
3.20 Conclusion

4: Hygienic design of food processing equipment

4.1 Introduction: key criteria in hygienic design
4.2 Risk assessment in equipment design
4.3 Regulatory requirements for hygienic equipment design: the European Union (EU)
4.4 Drainability
4.5 Materials of construction
4.6 Surface finish
4.7 Corners, crevices and dead spaces
4.8 Welds and joints
4.9 Fasteners
4.10 Seals
4.11 Shaft ends
4.12 Doors, covers and panels
4.13 Rims
4.14 Conveyor belts
4.15 Equipment controls and instrumentation
4.16 Equipment installation
4.17 Insulation and cladding
4.18 Conclusion

5: Food processing equipment construction materials

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Metals in food processing equipment
5.3 Plastics, composites and elastomers
5.4 Other materials

6: Verification and certification of hygienic design in food processing

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Testing methods
6.3 Particular tests for cleanability
6.4 Future trends
6.5 Certification of equipment
6.6 Conclusion

7: Control of airborne contamination in food processing

7.1 Introduction: why control of airborne contamination is important in food production
7.2 Sources of airborne contamination
7.3 Dust control
7.4 Control of environmental air quality
7.5 Process air control
7.6 Air disinfection systems
7.7 Air sampling
7.8 Guide to maximum airborne counts for different product contamination rates
7.9 Conclusion and future trends
7.10 Sources of further information and advice

8: Hygiene control in the application of compressed air and food gases

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Hygiene control in the supply and application of food safe compressed air
8.3 Compressed air systems: components and location
8.4 Equipment to remove the bulk of water
8.5 Filtration and drying in compressed air systems
8.6 Design and installation of compressed air distribution system
8.7 Measures and procedures to prevent compressed air from contaminating the food processing area
8.8 Monitoring and maintenance of compressed air systems
8.9 Hygiene control in the supply and application of food gases
8.10 Conclusion

Part III: Hygiene practices in food processing

9: Cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sanitation principles
9.3 Cleaning chemicals
9.4 Disinfectants
9.5 Testing disinfectants
9.6 Water quality
9.7 Sanitation methodology
9.8 Wholeroom disinfection
9.9 Sanitation procedures
9.10 Evaluation of sanitation effectiveness
9.11 Sanitation management
9.12 Conclusion

10: Cleaning in place (CIP) in food processing

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Cleaning chemicals and disinfectants for cleaning in place (CIP)
10.3 Other key factors for an effective CIP process
10.4 The main types of CIP systems
10.5 Centralized/decentralized CIP systems
10.6 Design of CIP line circuit
10.7 Cleaning of process vessels, large-volume equipment and tanks
10.8 Spray and jet devices for CIP
10.9 Installation, positioning and operation of tank cleaning devices
10.10 Managing tank cleaning
10.11 Automation
10.12 Automated self-cleaning of CIP systems
10.13 Future trends
10.14 Acknowledgement

11: Hygienic practices for equipment maintenance

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Scheduled maintenance
11.3 Design, installation and working practices for improved hygiene during maintenance and repairs
11.4 Purchase and acceptance of bought-in equipment, tools and lubricants
11.5 Maintenance, repair and lubrication according to the principles of hygienic design
11.6 Personal hygiene practices during maintenance operations in the food industry
11.7 Hygienic maintenance and repair practices in the food industry
11.8 Evaluation of the quality of maintenance work done and record keeping
11.9 Conclusion

12: Personal hygiene in the food industry

12.1 Introduction: definition of personal hygiene
12.2 People as sources of contamination
12.3 Management practices for controlling contamination
12.4 Personal hygiene policy and practices for controlling contamination
12.5 Control of indirect contamination from people
12.6 Conclusion

13: Food hygiene and foreign bodies

13.1 Introduction
13.2 The range of foreign bodies
13.3 The role of good hygiene practice in managing these hazards
13.4 Methods of preventing foreign body contamination
13.5 Detection and removal systems for foreign bodies
13.6 Conclusion
13.7 Future trends
13.8 Sources of further information and advice

14: Pest control in food businesses: an introduction

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Integrated pest management (IPM)
14.3 Pest control programs
14.4 Contents of a pest control program
14.5 Data collection
14.6 Communication
14.7 Maintaining and evaluating the pest control program
14.8 Conclusion
14.9 Future trends

15: Pest control of stored food products: insects and mites

15.1 Introduction
15.2 The spread of pests
15.3 Physical control of pests
15.4 Chemical control of pests
15.5 Biological control of pests
15.6 Threats to successful control
15.7 Conclusion

16: Microbiological environmental sampling, records and record interpretation

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Sampling programmes and strategies
16.3 Sampling methods: monitoring surfaces
16.4 Sampling methods: validation and verification of surfaces
16.5 Sampling of personnel
16.6 Air and water sampling
16.7 Practical sampling
16.8 Sample transport and processing
16.9 Conclusion

17: Economics and management of hygiene in food plants

17.1 Introduction: the perception of cleaning costs as an example of the perception of hygiene
17.2 The real cost of hygiene
17.3 Direct factors
17.4 Indirect factors
17.5 Overview of optimisation tools
17.6 Conclusion and future trends

Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is the Founder and President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology. He is an editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management, novel food processing technologies, and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines, and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine and is a leading expert in food safety. Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), a major supplier of cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and hygiene services. He is a Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI. He has been a member of the EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) since 1989 and has also chaired ISO Working Groups producing standards on hygienic design and lubricants and chaired the GFSI Working Group on the hygienic design of food facilities and equipment. He is a co-editor in the other two Elseveir books. He has published and presented hundreds of scientific papers, technical articles and presentations in food safety and hygienic design. David Napper is the Managing Director of Enviro- Development, Denmark.