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The Acquisition of Spanish as a Second Language

Foundations and New Developments

; Avizia Y. Long ; Megan Solon

This volume offers an introduction to the field of second language acquisition with a particular focus on second language Spanish. It connects key issues in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language to theoretical and empirical issues in the field of second language acquisition more generally by exemplifying central concepts in second language acquisition through the exploration of the most widely researched structures and most recent developments in the field of second language Spanish. Les mer
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This volume offers an introduction to the field of second language acquisition with a particular focus on second language Spanish. It connects key issues in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language to theoretical and empirical issues in the field of second language acquisition more generally by exemplifying central concepts in second language acquisition through the exploration of the most widely researched structures and most recent developments in the field of second language Spanish. It is written for a non-specialist audience, making it suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and readers, while its treatment of recent empirical developments also makes it of interest to researchers in second language Spanish as well as allied fields.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Contents





PART I: Fundamentals of Research on the Acquisition of Spanish as a Second Language





Chapter One: Introduction to Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition











Introduction







The Study of Second Language Acquisition













What is a Second Language Learner?







How are Second Languages Different from Additional (Third, Fourth, Fifth, etc.) Languages?







Why is Second Language Spanish Important?







What does It Mean to "Know" a Language?













Historical perspectives













Cognitive Approaches to Second Language Acquisition







The Relationship of Social and Linguistic Factors to Language Acquisition













Key Developments in the Field of Second Language Acquisition













Common Paths of Development







Influence of the First Language







Importance of Input







Influence of Linguistic Factors, Learner Characteristics, and Social Context













The Contributions of Technology in Advancing Research on Second Language Acquisition







Summary: Critical Considerations in Assessing Research in Second Language Acquisition







Conclusion
Note







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








Chapter Two: Research Methods











Introduction







What Is Linguistic Data?













How Do We Characterize Linguistic Data?







What Types of Linguistic Data Do Second Language Researchers Use?













How Do We Get Linguistic Data?













Eliciting Production Data
















Oral interviews










Prompt-based writing










Picture description or narration










Other types of guided production










Highly-controlled production










Interaction-based elicitation

















Eliciting Judgement and Interpretation Data
















Psycholinguistic Measures















What Do We Do with Linguistic Data?







Non-Linguistic Data







Conclusion
Notes







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








PART II. Central Issues in Second Language Acquisition and Case Studies of Spanish





Chapter Three: First Language Influence and the Acquisition of /b d g/











Introduction







The Role of First Languages in Second Language Acquisition













What is Cross-Linguistic Influence?







Historical Perspectives: The 1950's







Historical Perspectives: Generative Grammar







Current Research Goals and Perspectives













Test Case from Spanish: The Acquisition of /b d g/













/b d g/ in Spanish







The Challenge for English-speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on /b d g/ in Second Language Spanish













Stages of Development of /b d g/







The Role of Instruction and Study Abroad













Connections













Additional Spanish Sounds







Connections beyond the Sound System













Conclusion







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








Chapter Four: Developmental Paths and the Acquisition of Copula Contrast











Introduction







Universal Patterns in the Path to Acquisition of a Second Language













Early Work: Morpheme Acquisition Studies







Explaining the Order of Acquisition







Criticism of the Morpheme Acquisition Studies













Test Case from Spanish: The Acquisition of Ser and Estar













The Copula Contrast in Spanish







Challenges for English-Speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on the Acquisition of Ser and Estar













Stages of Development of Copula Acquisition







Additional Learners and Learning Contexts







Stages within the [Copula + Adjective] Context













Connections













Additional Structures: Spanish Number and Gender







Connections to the Field of Second Language Acquisition













Conclusion
Notes







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








Chapter Five: Form-Meaning Mapping and the Acquisition of Past-Time Marking











Introduction







Form-Meaning Mapping













What is Form-Meaning Mapping?







Universal Strategies







Variation as Hypothesis Testing













Test Case from Spanish: The Acquisition of Preterit and Imperfect













The Preterit and Imperfect in Spanish







Challenges for English-speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on the Acquisition of the Preterit and Imperfect













Lexical Aspect in Preterit/Imperfect Form-Meaning Mapping







Additional Factors Affecting the Acquisition of the Preterit and Imperfect







Acquisition of the Preterit and Imperfect by Advanced Second Language Learners













Connections













Additional Structures: Spanish Subjunctive







Connections to the Field of Second Language Acquisition













Conclusion
Notes







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








Chapter Six: Input, Language Variation, and the Acquisition of Object Pronouns











Introduction







Input and Second Language Acquisition













Linguistic Variation and Second Language Acquisition













Test Case from Spanish: Object Pronouns













Object Pronouns in Spanish







Challenges for English-Speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on the Acquisition of Object Pronouns













Early Research and the First Noun Strategy







The Challenge of the Third Person Singular Object Pronoun: Le versus Lo







The Role of Geography













Connections













Additional Variable Structures: The Expression of Future Time Reference







Additional Variable Structures: Forms of Address







Connections to the Field of SLA













Conclusion







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








PART III: Expansion and Application





Chapter Seven: Study Abroad and the Acquisition of Variable /s/-weakening











Introduction







The Role of Study Abroad in Second Language Acquisition













The Influence of Study Abroad on Proficiency







Communicative Competence and Study Abroad







Study Abroad and Spanish Phonology







Study Abroad and Spanish Morphosyntax







Study Abroad and Spanish Pragmatics







The Role of Extralinguistic Factors in Mediating the Benefits of Study Abroad







The Role of Instruction in Mediating the Benefits of Study Abroad







Characteristics of the Study Abroad Context







Characteristics of the Learner













Test Case from Spanish: /s/-weakening













/s/-weakening in Spanish







Challenges for English-Speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on the Acquisition of /s/-weakening













Research on Production







Research on Perception













Connections













Additional Structures: The Interdental Fricative [ ]







Additional Structures: Variable Morphosyntax







Connections to the Field of SLA













Conclusion







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension








Chapter Eight: Insights for the Classroom and the Acquisition of Subject Forms











Introduction







Instruction of Second Language Spanish













Insights from Second Language Acquisition that Drive Good Pedagogy







Recent Developments in Second Language Instruction







The Role of Instructor Characteristics in Language Instruction







Research on Task-based Instruction







The Pan-Dialectal Nature of Classroom Input













Test Case from Spanish: Subject Forms in Learner-Directed Language













Subject Forms in Spanish







Challenges for English-Speaking Learners of Spanish













Research on the Acquisition of Subject Forms













Patterns in the Second Language Acquisition of Subject Forms







Research on Written and Oral Learner-Directed Language







Implications for Acquisition of Subject Forms in Instructed Settings













Connections













Additional Structures: Preterit and Imperfect







Connections to the Field of SLA









i. The role of input and interaction


ii. How can language instruction foster second language acquisition?


iii. Connecting research with practice


iv. Use tasks to facilitate learning through meaningful communication


v. Consider task design features thoughtfully when planning lessons, courses, and curricula


vi. Vary interactional partners


vii. Seek and provide numerous and varied sources of input


viii. Consider individual differences


ix. Use technology thoughtfully to encourage real online interaction








Conclusion
Notes







Reading beyond the Text







Comprehension

Om forfatteren

Kimberly L. Geeslin is Professor of Hispanic Linguistics in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at Indiana University, USA. Her research focuses on second language Spanish and the intersection of second language acquisition and sociolinguistics.


Avizia Y. Long is Assistant Professor of Spanish in the Department of World Languages and Literatures at San Jose State University, USA. Her research interests include the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation by non-Western learners, study abroad and the acquisition of second language Spanish phonetics and phonology, and the role of the instructor in classroom-based learning.


Megan Solon is Assistant Research Scientist in the Department of Applied Health Science at Indiana University, USA. Her research focuses on the acquisition of phonetics and phonology in second and heritage language Spanish and explores the acquisition of variable phonetic features as well as the role of learning context and instructional practices on phonetic development.