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Environmental Analysis Laboratory Handbook

; Rupal Gupta

Today, environmental issues are a great cause of concern at the global level, and universities and other institutions around the world are involved in research on climate change, deforestation, pollution control, and many other issues. Les mer
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Om boka

Today, environmental issues are a great cause of concern at the global level, and universities and other institutions around the world are involved in research on climate change, deforestation, pollution control, and many other issues. Moreover, environmental science and environmental biotechnology are inherent parts of various courses while some universities provide degrees in these fields. Although the environment perspective of water is discussed time and again in research, academic, and non-academic discussions, there is no book summarizing protocols involved in water quality analysis. The information seems to be sporadically distributed on the internet.


Even if available at all, the information does not discuss limits of the protocols or caveats involved. For example, essays on chemical oxygen demand (COD) on the internet mostly do not discuss differences between organic compounds of biological origin and aliphatic/aromatic. The authors have performed nearly all the protocols mentioned in this new volume, and their protocols are discussed in a simplified, easy-to-understand manner. The book has been written after elaborative discussions with and input from faculty and research students to ensure the clarity of the material for use on many levels.


Further, the authors have emphasized low-cost methods which involve minimal use of high-end instrumentation keeping in mind limitations faced in developing countries. A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels. It is a must-have for any library.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Preface xxi


Acknowledgement xxiii


Table of Abbreviations xxv


Table of Symbols xxvii


List of Figures xxix


List of Tables xxxiii


List of Chemicals and Respective Molecular Weight xxxv


1 Air, Water and Soil: An Environmental Perspective 1


1.1 Introduction 1


1.2 Air 2


1.2.1 Composition of Air 2


1.2.2 Air Pollution 3


1.2.3 Air Pollutants 3


1.2.4 Adverse Effect of Contaminants 5


1.3 Water 6


1.3.1 Properties of Water Molecule 6


1.3.2 Global Significance of Water 8


1.3.3 Environmental Monitoring 9


1.3.4 Water Quality Assessment in Recycling 10


1.3.5 Wastewater Treatment Plant 10


1.3.6 Working of Sewage Treatment Plant 11


1.4 Soil 12


1.4.1 Importance of Soil 13


1.4.2 Types of Soil 13


1.4.3 Soil Pollution 14


1.4.4 Types of Soil Pollution 14


1.4.5 Anthropogenic Activities 15


1.4.6 Health Effects 16


1.4.7 Ecosystem Effects 16


1.4.8 Methods to Reduce Soil Pollution 17


References 18


2 Determination of Physical Properties of Environmental Samples 21


2.1 Introduction 21


2.2 Determination of Specific Gravity or Density in the Given Water Sample 22


2.2.1 Principle 22


2.2.2 Material Required 25


2.2.3 Procedure for Specific Gravity Measurements Using Pycnometer/Volumetric Flask 26


2.2.4 Observation Table 26


2.2.4.1 Measurement of Specific Gravity of Water Sample 26


2.2.4.2 Readings of Pycnometer 26


2.2.5 Calculations 27


2.2.6 Results 27


2.2.7 Notes 27


2.3 Determination of Turbidity of Given Water Sample 28


2.3.1 Principle 28


2.3.2 Nephelometric Method 28


2.3.3 Material Required 29


2.3.4 Procedure 30


2.3.5 Standard Curve 30


2.3.6 Calculation 31


2.3.7 Note 31


2.4 Determination of Total Suspended Solids 31


2.4.1 Principle 31


2.4.2 Material Required 32


2.4.3 Procedure 32


2.4.4 Observation 33


2.4.5 Observation Table 33


2.4.6 Calculation 34


2.4.7 Results 34


2.4.8 Notes 34


2.5 Determination of Total Dissolved Solids 34


2.5.1 Principle 34


2.5.2 Material Required 35


2.5.3 Procedure 36


2.5.4 Observations Table 36


2.5.5 Calculation 36


2.5.6 Result 36


2.5.7 Notes 37


2.6 Determination of the Moisture Content of Soil 37


2.6.1 Principle 37


2.6.2 Material Required 37


2.6.3 Procedure 38


2.6.4 Observation 38


2.6.5 Calculations 38


2.6.6 Result 38


2.7 Determination of pH Using