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Manganese Removal from Groundwater

Role of Biological and Physico-Chemical Autocatalytic Processes

In The Netherlands, Belgium and other European countries, manganese is removed by conventional groundwater treatment with aeration and rapid (sand) filtration. Such a treatment process is easy to operate, cost effective and sustainable, because it does not make use of strong oxidants such as O3, Cl2, ClO2 and KMnO4 with the associated risk of by-product formation and over or under dosing. Les mer
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Legg i
Vår pris: 860,-

(Paperback) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
På grunn av Brexit-tilpasninger og tiltak for å begrense covid-19 kan det dessverre oppstå forsinket levering.

Om boka

In The Netherlands, Belgium and other European countries, manganese is removed by conventional groundwater treatment with aeration and rapid (sand) filtration. Such a treatment process is easy to operate, cost effective and sustainable, because it does not make use of strong oxidants such as O3, Cl2, ClO2 and KMnO4 with the associated risk of by-product formation and over or under dosing.

However, application of aeration-filtration is also facing drawbacks, especially the long ripening time of filter media. Due to the long ripening time, water companies have to waste large volumes of treated water, making this process less sustainable. Also, costs associated with filter media ripening (man power, electricity, operational and analysis costs) are high. Therefore decreasing the filter ripening time, regarding manganese removal is a big issue.





Although already extended research has been carried out into manganese removal, the controlling mechanisms, especially of the start up face of filter media ripening, are not fully understood yet. The emphasis of this thesis is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ripening of virgin filter media, regarding manganese removal and how to shorten or completely eliminate the long ripening period of filters with virgin material.





This thesis therefore highlights the role of the formation of a manganese oxide coating on virgin filter media. Characterization and identification revealed that the responsible manganese oxide for an effective manganese removal was Birnessite. It was found that Birnessite, formed at the beginning of the ripening process was of a biological origin. Based on the knowledge that manganese removal in conventional groundwater treatment is initiated biologically, long ripening times may be reduced by creating conditions favouring the growth of manganese oxidizing bacteria, e.g., by limiting the back wash frequency and / or intensity. Additionally, this thesis also shows that the use of freshly prepared manganese oxide, containing Birnessite, can completely eliminate filter media ripening time.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

Summary


1 General introduction
1.1 Manganese in groundwater and groundwater treatment in The Netherlands
1.1.1 Manganese occurrence in groundwater
1.1.2 The relevance of manganese in drinking water and guideline values
1.1.3 Groundwater treatment in the Netherlands
1.2 Problem description regarding manganese removal in practice
1.3 Aim and research objectives of this thesis
1.4 Outline of this thesis
1.5 References


2 Assessment of manganese removal from over 100 groundwater treatment plants
2.1 Abstract
2.2 Introduction
2.3 Materials and Methods
2.4 Results and Discussion
2.4.1 Multivariate statistics and univariate correlations
2.4.2 NH4+ removal efficiency
2.4.3 Effect of iron loading
2.4.4 Effect of (filtrate) pH
2.4.5 Other parameters
2.4.6 Effect of filtration rate (m/h)
2.4.7 Effect of contact time and filter bed depth
2.4.8 Effect of oxygen concentration
2.4.9 Effect of filtration type (gravity or pressure)
2.5 Conclusions
2.6 Acknowledgements
2.7 References


3 Manganese removal from groundwater: characterization of filter media coating
3.1 Abstract
3.2 Introduction
3.3 Materials and Methods
3.3.1 Raman spectroscopy
3.3.2 XRD
3.3.3 SEM-EDX
3.3.4 EPR
3.4 Results and Discussion
3.4.1 Selection Raman spectroscopy settings
3.4.2 Characterization of MOCA and MOCS by Raman spectroscopy
3.4.3 XRD
3.4.4 SEM-EDX
3.4.5 EPR
3.4.6 The importance of Birnessite formation on MOCA/MOCS for manganese removal
3.5 Conclusions
3.6 Acknowledgements
3.7 References


4 Biological and physico-chemical formation of birnessite during ripening of manganese removal filters
4.1 Abstract
4.2 Introduction
4.3 Materials and Methods
4.4 Results and Discussion
4.4.1 Analytical data pilot
4.4.2 Ripening time of filter media
4.4.3 Raman spectroscopy
4.4.4 Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
4.4.5 Scannin

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