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Water Supply and Demand Management in the Galapagos

A Case Study of Santa Cruz Island

Water resources in tourist islands have been severely threatened, especially in the Galapagos Islands, where the increased local population has generated attractive income from the tourist services. In addition, the data regarding water supply and demand are scarce. Les mer
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Vår pris: 2700,-

(Innbundet) Fri frakt!
Leveringstid: Sendes innen 21 dager
På grunn av Brexit-tilpasninger og tiltak for å begrense covid-19 kan det dessverre oppstå forsinket levering.

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Water resources in tourist islands have been severely threatened, especially in the Galapagos Islands, where the increased local population has generated attractive income from the tourist services. In addition, the data regarding water supply and demand are scarce. This study investigates water supply and demand in Santa Cruz, the most populated island of Galapagos. The research encompasses a thorough assessment of the water supply crisis, as well as the quantification of water demand from different categories (domestic, tourist, restaurants and laundries) through surveys, in the absence of water metering. Also, specific water demand was assessed by installing 18 water meters. The results yield a wide range of water consumption, questioning the current assumption of water scarcity. Furthermore, a prognosis of water supply and demand was carried out, and also several intervention strategies were proposed such as rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling, leakage reduction, water meter installation, water demand reduction, as well as seawater desalination to cope with the future population growth. Due to the fragility of the ecosystem, these strategies were assessed through a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, considering environmental, technical, economic and social aspects, as well as relevant stakeholders' perspectives. finally, the water supply network of Puerto Ayora was evaluated in order to understand the need of the current intermittent supply regime. A methodology was developed to estimate the overflow of the domestic roof tanks (a common incidence amongst local population). The results question the practicality of individual household storage. The final results show that the current situation in terms of the lack of water quantity may not be real, as it has been thought for the last decades. The water issues refer more importantly to the water quality, as well as to the lack of proper water management practices.

Fakta

Innholdsfortegnelse

1. General Introduction
1.1 Water resources on small islands
1.2 Tourism influence on small islands
1.3 Water supply and demand issues on small islands
1.4 Water (demand) management on islands
1.5 General perspective of Santa Cruz Island
1.6 Motivation of the study
1.7 Outline of the thesis


2. Case Study Description
2.1 General information on the Galapagos Islands
2.2 The origin of the sources of water
2.3 The island of Santa Cruz
2.4 Research objectives and scope


3. Data Assessment for Water Demand and Supply Balance on Santa Cruz
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research methodology
3.3 Main stakeholders involved in water resources management of Santa Cruz
3.4 Main suppliers of water at the island of Santa Cruz
3.5 Water supply systems in Puerto Ayora and Bellavista
3.6 Water-tariff structures in Santa Cruz Island
3.7 Assessment of water consumption for various categories in Santa Cruz
3.8 Management problems in the municipal department of potable water and sanitation
3.9 Institutional issues in Santa Cruz
3.10 Water supply input as component of water balance for Santa Cruz
3.11 Water demand calculation in Bellavista
3.12 Conclusions and Recommendations


4. Quantification of urban water demand
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Research methodology
4.3 Results of the survey
4.4 Analyses of results in Puerto Ayora and Bellavista
4.5 Average costs of water supply in Santa Cruz
4.6 Analysis on willingness to pay, payment of bottled water and increase of fixed tariffs
4.7 Conclusions and Recommendations


5. Assessment of domestic consumption in puerto ayora intermittent supply network
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Research methodology
5.3 Results and discussion
5.3 Analysis on scarcity of water in Puerto Ayora
5.4 Conclusions


6. Mitigation Options for Future Water Scarcity Using WaterMet2 Model
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Water demand forecasting
6.3 Urban water systems modelling
6.4 WaterMet2 model
6.5 Research methodology
6.6 Population and tourist growth scenarios for Puerto Ayora

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