This volume reflects the 'philosophy of science in practice' approach and takes a fresh look at traditional philosophical
problems in the context of natural, social, and health research. Inspired by the work of Nancy Cartwright that shows how the
practices and apparatuses of science help us to understand science and to build theories in the philosophy of science, this
volume critically examines the philosophical concepts of evidence, laws, causation, and models and their roles in the process
of scientific reasoning. Each chapter is an important one in the philosophy of science, while the volume as a whole deals
with these philosophical concepts in a unified way in the context of actual scientific practice. This volume thus aims to
contribute to this new direction in the philosophy of science.